Some New or Little Known Nearctic Neonympha (Lepidoptera: Satyridae).
Psyche 49(3-4):61-80, 1942.
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19421 Nearctic Neonympha 6 1
SOME NEW OR LITTLE KNOWN NEARCTIC
(Lepidoptera : Satyridze)
The capture in Arizona in June 1941 of what struck me as an undescribed species of Neonympha suggested certain in- vestigation~~ the results of which are given in this paper. A study of about a hundred specimens labelled ('henshawi Edw.," which I accumulated from different sources, revealed that two pairs of gemmate species) one pair unnamed? the other neg- lected) occurred in Arizona., Confusion has been due not so much to some chance obscurity in a great entomologist's de- scription 66 years ago) as to the indifference and consequent lack of precision in regard to this section of Neonympha on the part of those who wrote after him. Somehow lepidopterists have never seemed overeager to obtain these delicately orna- mented, quickly fading Satyrids that so quaintly combine a boreal-alpine aspect with a tropical-silvan onel the upperside quiet velvet of ((browns)' being accompanied by an almost Lycznid glitter on the under surface. There exists very little information concerning such things as the number of broods? possible seasonal variation, limits of distribution, allied Mexi- can and Central American forms7 haunts? habits and early stages.
What follows is an attempt to set down the peculiarities of these four insects as a tentative basis for further research that would amplify the comparatively meager facts at my disposal. A definition of the species most usually confused with henshawi Edw. and a full description of its typical race? with comparative descriptions of two other races are followed by comparative descriptions of the three other species7 listing their distinctive characters in the same order. The species to be discussed are: Neovzympha dorothea n. sp. (referred to by Edwards as 'Published with the aid of a grant from the Museum of Comparative Zo6Iogy of Harvard College.
62 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
c some specimens" etc., in conjoint description of henshawi Edw., 1887, Butt. N. Am., 111, Neonympha I; reproduced from a female in Edwards' collection as "henshawi Edw., male," by Holland, 1898) and later editions, Butt. Book, Pl. 25, fig. 8, upperside.)
Neonympha maniolu n. sp. (presumably figured, as "hen- shawi)" by Wright, 1905, Butt. W. Coast, Pl. 25, fig. 226 a, b, c) male, upperside) female, both sides).
Neonympha pyracmon Butler (I 866, Proc. Zool. SOC., Lon- don, p. 499, female; 1867, Proc. 2001. SOC., London, Pl. 11) fig. 11, female, underside; Godman) 1901, Biol. Centr. Am. Rhop.) 11, p. 693; 111, Pl. 107, figs. I I, 12, male, both sides, misl'abelled "hila&";
Weymer, I9 I I, in Seitz) Rhop. Am.,
Neonymphu henshawi Edwards (1876, Trans. Am. Ent. SOC., p. 205, female; Godman, 1880, Bid. Centr. Am., Rhop., 111, Pl. 8, fig. 2 7, female, underside, mislabelled '(pyracmon" ; Ed- wards, 1887) Butt. N. Am., 111, Pl. 1) figs. 5-8, both sexes, both sides; Maynard) 1891, Mnl. N. Am. Butt., p. 108,. female; fig. 3 5d, female, hind-wing underside).
Neonympha dorothea n. sp.
Sharing with the other three species such upperside charac- ters as: brownish ground color in male) with more or less diffuse fulvous red; fine fulvous margin) mainly subanal in secondaries; androconial mark in male primaries; przterminal dark spots in secondaries of both sexes; and such underside characters as: more or less fulvous ground color of primaries; small discal button-spot on both wings; four transverse lines, to wit: first discal) crossing cell R + M; second discal, curving round cell (its course in primaries dependent upon specific outline of termen) ; subterminal, mostly striate in primaries (less adjusted there to differentiation of termen) and mostly incomplete and deformed in secondaries; przterminal, mostly punctate in primaries, and embossed with serrate silver in secondaries where it forms a silver W in Cul, passes through two double ocelli in M3 and M2 placed within a cinereous irrora- tion, and produces two pairs of V-shaped dashes in Ml and Re. Distinguished from its three congeners as follows: Primaries apically short and rather bluntly rounded, with straight termen;
19421 Nearctic Neonympha 63
secondaries evenly rounded in both sexes, with very slight sinuation in female; przterminal spots rather blurred. Androconial mark: medium sized, with fairly smooth outer edge coinciding7 except in Cu2 where it retreats basally, with second discal line as seen through wing; consisting of 5 patches (shading in 2A not included), adjoining cell and separated by FIGS. 1-4. Scheme of androconial patches in Neonympha. l7 N. maniola;
2, N. do~othea; 3> N. henshawi; 4? N. pyracmon. veins, as follows: rhomboid, with sides slanting basally sub- parallel to cubitus, in Cu2; two decreasing trapezoids, in Cul and M3; two wedges in M2 and MI; and of short triangle, in cell R + M, against inner side of cross vein7 pointing basally and reaching down to about level of Cul. (See fig. 2.) Female upperside: diffusely colored, with slight shadings. Male and female underside :
primaries : second discal line
running subparallel to first discal line, curving from costa be- hind cell to slope down towards subterminal line and thus limiting with the latter a truncate upsilon-shaped area in mid- dle of wing; subterminal line from dorsum up to about Cul running closer to second discal than to termen but then) by re- taining a primal course) diverging terminally to reach apex (which would have been costa? had the apex been longer, in which case the subterminal line would have been parallel to a primal, slanting? termen), thus enhancing the impression of the outward slope on the part of the second discal which in re- ality is subparallel to the straight termen (to which) contrary to the subterminal line, it has become adjusted) ; secondaries: heavily and completely bordered with dark cinereous which encloses ocelli and silver serration, and expands in M2 and M3 where the second discal line is thickly arched inversely to termen.
64 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
Neonympha dorothea dorothea n. subsp.
Male: expanse of left fore-wing 20.9 (from base to end of MI).
Upperside: deep brown with lighter veins; some dark fulvous red scales just discernible in between them; cilia f uscous ; dark f uscous androconial mark. Primaries very finely edged with fulvous; secondaries more broadly so, but only to about Cul from tornus, with four spots along termen: first one rather indistinct) in Cul; second and third subreniform, blotchy, blackish, in M3 and M2; and fourth) very weak, in MI; a fine dark ray (interneural fold) through middle of each reaching the cilia from disc. Underside: primaries: flushed with deep warm red of Erebian ("caZZias") tone over lower part; thickly dusted with yellowish brown and traversed by reddish brown striz over upper part ; lines : chestnut brown ; pr~terminal consisting of very indistinct sequence of dots; small brown discal spot above M2 near cell R+ M on both wings, buttoning top of androconial mark in primaries (if viewed through wing). Secondaries: discally of darker shade of brown than subcostal and subapical areas of primaries; with some redder strize and a sprinkling of fluffy hoary scales basally; discal lines: deep chestnut brown; the first irregularly crossing cell R -t- M; the second from tornus following serrated (on Cu2) but fairly direct course up to Cul beyond which it strongly thickens and arches inversely to termen in M3-M2, then narrows again) abruptly turns outward as if to end at MI, just above a roughly V-shaped basally pointed combination of two silver prztermi- nal dashes) but really swerves back again and up towards Rs in which interspace it is almost concealed by a second V-pair of silver dashes which seems superimposed. Subterminal line from tornus arches inversely to termen in Cu2, dips terminally) then shoots up basally along middle of cell Cul where it stops, forming a thickish chestnut brown bar which coincides with the terminal course of the interneural fold. A broad cinereous
border heavily stippled with purplish black transverse striz, merged with the cinereous underside of the fringe and limited inwardIy by the arches of the second discal and subterminal lines, occupies the whole outer third (excepting a vineleaf- shaped) as viewed from base, fulvous brown space between second discal and subterminal lines in Cl-C2) ) thus completely enclosing the ocelli and other markings to be mentioned. Ex-
amined in its action upon the discal and subterminal lines, it may be described as invading the termen from the tornus, with its inward edge causing the subterminal line to arch inversely to termen in Cu27 then bursting through in Cul, diverting basally the broken end of the subterminal line and swelling strongly towards the second discal; beyond Cul it pushes up even farther, touching (except for a few dusky scales in between) the second distal? which its pressure forces to arch in M3-MZ7 and then reaching the termination of R*. This border, which produces a strong avian or %caly" effect, encloses pr~termi- nally, in M3 and M2, two subreniform (twinned) ocelli7 jet- black, each delicately rimmed and threaded through with light fulvous so as to form a capital "B7' facing the termen, with the interneural folds faintly traced in a paler tint through the dark cinereous irroration; in each black cell of each "B" a bright silver ((T7' glitters7 its stem projecting basally7 its crossbar subparallel to the termen and neither stem nor bar touching the rim. The embossed silver of these four "T" marks is sup- plied by the breaking up of a silver line which starts from about Cu2 (in continuation and sublimation of a vaguely dis- cernible dark przterminal line from tornus); forms in Cul, upon the interneural ray and beneath the end of the subtermi- nal line7 a "W7' (as viewed from base)? where an ocellus7 visible as a spot on the upperside, seems to be in the process of being built with the help of the dark pigment which is channelled terminally by the interneural fold from the end of the subter- minal line; then traverses the kernels of the spots in M3 and M2 and produces farther up the V-shaped pairs of silver dashes already mentioned; the first pair of these suggests the forma- tion of a rudimental fourth spot whose interneural ray looks like a terminal projection of the second discal line. There is a thin bright fulvous margin from tornus to middle of cell Cu17 running between the cilia and the silver line (incidentally, in regard to these very Coenonympha-like markings, it should be noted that the ocelli in the latter genus are formed subtermi- nally, not przterminally as in this section of Neonympha). Female. Exp. 2 1 -5. Upperside pale reddish brown with pink- ish tone. Primaries: with faint adumbration post-cellularly and terminally7 but on the whole producing a unicolorous im- -
pression. Secondaries: evenly rounded, as in male; with dim greyish shade surrounding the rather blurred and formless dark
66 Psyche [Sept-~ec.
spots (in Ms, M3 and Cui) and slightly deepening towards apex. Underside as in male.
Male, holotype, female, allotype, and two males, paratypes, placed in the American Museum of Natural History. Taken during a brief visit to Grand Cafion, Ariz., South Rim, on June 9th) 1941 (bright cold morning after snow and rain). They were weakly fluttering beside the trail together with a few Coen. tullwfurcae - almost no other butterflies about. Named in honor of Miss Dorothy Leuthold who kindly kicked up the first specimen. Female, paratype, labelled "Grand Cy., June 11th '30", ex Coll. of C.F. dos Passes, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. Neonympha dorothea edwardsi n . subsp.
Male. Exp. 20.2. Upperside : brown tint somewhat lighter, with much greater amount of duller fulvous red diffused in both wings. Secondaries: spots reduced to two, in Ms and Ms (visible also in Cui in some specimens). Underside: striae somewhat more abundant and conspicuous on both wings. Primaries: pale fulvous brown with light reddish wash in lower part;
praeterminal line quite clear as a row of dots. Sec- ondaries : fulvous brown ; beyond second discal line correspond- ingly paler than in dorothea dorothea. Cinereous border somewhat less developed, i.e. not approaching as close to arched but slightly thinner second discal in M3 and Mg, thus leaving a narrow but distinct stretch of ground color in between. Female. Exp. 20.7. Upperside pale reddish brown but lack- ing the pinkish tone of dorothea dorothea - a slight but dis- tinct character connecting it with transitions to the fulvous southern race or races.
Male, holotype, labelled: "Gila Co. Ariz. June 1902, 0. C. Poling", ex A. G. Weeks Coll., Museum of Comparative Zool- ogy, Cambridge, Mass.; female, allotype, "Ariz. 1892, C. J. Paine", Mus. Comp. Zool. Paratypes: 3 males "Gila Co. Ariz. June 1902, 0. C. Poling", ex A. G. Weeks Coll., Mus. Comp. Zool.; 2 males and 1 female "Ariz. 1892, C. J. Paine", Mus. Comp. Zool.; male and female, from "Ariza", wrongly labelled "Henshawi M" in Edwards' hand, ex Edwards' Coll., Carnegie Museum (it is the female of this pair that Holland figures as "henshawi Edw., male7' with the remark "much like N. gemma, but considerably larger and decidedly reddish upon the upper- side"; 1 male "Water Cafion, N. Mex., 5,000 ft. August '81,
1942 I Nearctic Neonympha 67
F. H. Snow" ex Edwards7 Coll., Carn. Mus.; 1 male "Fort Wingate (N. Mex.), June '23, Marloff Coll.", Carn. Mus.; 2 males "Colorado" (one ['Coll. Hy Edw."), 1 female "Colo- rado, Coll. Hy Edw.", Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (1. should have preferred taking as holotype the male from Edwards' collection were it not for the awkwardness of having such a vague locality as "Ariza7' for the type of a race.) Neonympha dorothea avicula n. subsp.
Male. Exp. 17.6. Upperside : primaries, fuscous, less brown than domthea dorothea, with the dark fuscous androconial shad- ing standing out very clearly; two large bright fulvous red patches in Cui and M3 and a similar bright tint along the veins involved in this area. The fulvous is so consoicuous and the fuscous so vague (and so much lighter than the sexmark), that the eye is inclined to accept the former as ground color. Sec-
ondaries: somewhat darker than primaries with only a slight suggestion of fulvous red in disc and two indistinct praetermi- nal spots in Mg and Ms. Underside: ground color of both wings a dull dunnish brown, very different from the rich and contrasting shades in dorothea dorothea, and of a remarkably even appearance owing to the almost total lack of (brown) striae, which are only faintly discernible about the costa and base of both wings. -Primaries: lines very faint;with the first discal hardly differentiated from the striae; but the discernible directions of the lines are naturally those of the species. Sec- ondaries : first discal indistinct ; second discal thickening and arching strongly, of a duller brown than in dorothea dorothea '
or edwardsi. Cinereous border as dark and rich as in typical race, but pressing against second discal in M3-Ma completely, without even the presence of a few dusky scales in between. Ocelli a trifle smaller than the smaller size of the insect might justify; silver serration and brown bar well developed; termi- nal fulvous line broader anally than in dorothea dorothea. Female. Exp. 18.5. Upperside of a very Cosnonympha-like appearance stressed by small size and fulvous tone which slightly deepens in primaries in area corresponding to that limited by the discal lines beneath, but not showing any defi- nite bands or lines, only a pale fuscous border merging with a similar shading along the costa. Secondaries: with a slight sinuation in termen unimpairing their "dorothean" roundness
68 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
and correspondence to primaries; well shaded with greyish; light fulvous in disc and beyond that slightly irrorated with the trans-wing shadows of the heavily striated cinereous border beneath. Underside: rather more contrasty than in male. Pri- maries: yellowish with faint fulvous red flush over lower part; marked as in male. Secondaries: as in male except for a slight olivaceous brown deepening of the dull ground color. Male, holotype, f emale, allotype, and female, paratype, all three labelled "Fort Davis, Texas, 3.VI.40" female, paratype, exp. 20.5, same label, with the addition "6,500 f.". All these ex Coll. C. F. dos Passos, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. The fixation of these three definite racial points, dorothea dorothea, dorothea edwardsi and dorothea avicula is, I think, unavoidable, but one does not care to indulge in pursuing this course and giving names to the various transitions which occur between them, especially as some of these variations seem to be seasonal. It will be noted that the holotypes of all three races were taken in June. Fifteen smallish specimens, twelve males, three females (Cam. Mus.), from Paradise, Ariz. taken by Poling late in the season (August-October) represent a cer- tain transition from edwardsi to avicula; another kind of tran- sition between the same is represented by two males from Silver City, South New Mexico, ex coll. dos Passos, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
Neonympha maniola n. sp.
Male. Primaries: more elongated apically than in dorothea with slightly slanting termen; in color like dorothea edivardsi with similar diffuse fulvous red.
Secondaries: termen slightly
sinuate; distinct prseterminal spots, in Cui (small), Ms and M2 (only the last two in most specimens), rather broadly aureolated with diffuse pale fulvous unlike any dorothea race. Androconial mark: large, broader throughout than in doro- thea, with larger, differently shaped patches and slightly jagged outer edge projecting on veins and interneural folds; post- cellularly pushing against second discal as seen through the wing; consisting of 5 patches: broad trapezoid, in Cg; two slightly decreasing trapezoids, in Cui and M3; two wedges in M2 and Mi; and of a triangle, in cell R + M, twice as long as in dorothea, pointing basally and reaching down to about level of Cu2. (See fig. 1.)
19421 Nearctic Neonympha 69
Male underside: primaries: rather bright fulvous of a uni- form tint (in some specimens the lines are almost erased), only slightly yellower along costa and subapically, and very weakly striated ; second discal, in correspondence to termen, after sloping terminally from costa turning basally in middle of cell Mo, then sloping downwards towards first discal line, sub- - -
parallel here to subterminal line which starts from dorsum slightly closer to termen than to second discal and further up slopes apically though rather less so than in dorothea. Secon- daries: producing in contrast with brightly and evenly fulvous primaries a curious "Manioloid" or "Hipparchian" effect, being thickly dusted all over (even between second discal and subterminal in some specimens) with greyish scales and abun- dant dusky striae over a dull brownish ground. Cinereous border reduced to a suboval patch in middle of outer third, weakly pigmented (in some specimens scarcely noticeable amid the general suffusion, although essentially of a different, prob- ably cilian, origin, tint and texture than the dull grey, probably basally originated, scales over the rest of the wing) ; this patch not as finely or evenly striated as in dorothea, the striae not much darker or less brown than in the rest of the wing, and surrounded completely and cloudily by the ground color with a yellower glimpse of same also visible within, around the ocelli, as a diffusion or germination of their rims. Second discal line of the dorothea type but more vaguely deviated basally in M3-M2, owing to weaker development of cinereous irroration; less abruptly projecting outwards in Mi and clearer in Rg7 but producing the same impression of passing underneath the sec- ond pair of silver dashes as in dorothea and thus not connect- ing with the second discal of primaries; bar of subterminal very weak.
Male, exp. 20.5, holotype, "Cochise Co., ex Coll. A. G. Weeks, slide 454", Mus. Comp. Zool.; paratypes: 2 males, labelled "Chiricahua Mts., (one: 7.VI.08, V. L. Clemense), ex Coll. H. C. Fall", Mus. Comp. 2001; 2 males "Chiricahua Mts. (22.VI.33, D. K. Dunkan; 25.VI)", ex coll. C. F. dos Passes, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
This, I think, is the "henshawi" figured by Wright who gives color photograph of male and female upperside and female underside (folded) from specimens taken in Sta Rita Mts., Pima Co. with the remark: "It can scarcely be considered as
70 # Psyche
belonging to the West Coast fauna and has but little, if any interest for us."
The female figure is only slightly differen- tiated from the male, with primaries upperside fulvous red, diffusely bordered with fuscous, and secondaries evenly fuscous with the fulvous aureoles of the male merely enlarged and deepened in tint to form an interrupted lunulate belt; underside (with allowance for a greenish blurring of the color process in the figure) very similar to the Chiricahua males. I have felt somewhat reluctant to fix this as a species, as there are no females in any of the collections I have examined. Maniola is closely allied to dorothea; but granted that andro- conial mark, wing shape, behavior of second discal and sub- terminal lines, and certain peculiarities of scaling, such as disclosed by the cinereous irroration, constitute specific char- acters in this group (if they do not, then one arrives at the absurd conclusion that there is only one "good" species, gemma Hiibner, with ab. pyracmon, ab. henshawi, ab. maniola, ab. dorothea etc. not even as races, for they occur together in different combinations) I cannot very well see how maniola can be placed alongside the dorothea races described, which all have a system of common characters quite inapplicable to maniola.
The third species, pyracmon Butl., is newly added here to the fauna of North America, although for many years specimens, labelled "henshawi" in collections, have been coming from Arizona. The Biol. Centr. Am. figure of "Pyracmon" female underside, totally different from Butler's figure, refers obvi- ously to a form of henshawi, while the beautifully executed portrait of pyracmon male, with underside, is designated as "hilaria" (an error corrected in the text). Butler's figure of the underside is coarsely colored, being, with the other butter- flies on the plate, too dusky and though illustrating, as it purports to do, a female, produces a wrong impression, simu- lating a male. Thus, pyracmon is pretty well concealed from the collector. However, a careful examination of Butler's text and figure convinces me that the Biol. Centr. Am. does illustrate the male of Butler's species, and with this figure the Arizonian insect tallies nicely. Unfortunately, I have not been able to obtain Mexican specimens or to get a photograph of the type from England.
Butler's original description, in Victorian Latin, runs thus:
"Euptychia Pyracmon, sp. n. female. A12 supra fuscz, linea post alarum medium posh fusca, extus rubro marginata? anti- carum subintegra, posticarum lunulata: antic2 margine postico paulo f uscescente? ciliis cinereis : posticz margine apicale pado fuscescente, margine anali rufescente, maculis tribus (or two. V. N.) submarginalibus nigris, interna minima: corpus cinereofuscum; antennis supra fuscis7 subtus albidis7 prz flavescentibus, cinereo fasciolatus. Alz subtus ochrez cinereo variz, fasciis duabus mediis irregularibus ferrugineis: anticz linea submarginali undulata apicem non attingente (this char- acter cannot be constant. V. N.) : posticz linea submarginali lunulata argintea, apud marginem analem intus ferrugineo marginata, ad apicem maculas duas binas argenteas formante7 maculis duabus mediis marginalibus nigris, macula permagna subanali cinerascente: corpus ochre0 cinereum. Exp. alar. unc. 1 14/16. Hab. Oajaca (Mexico). B. M.
Closely allied to E. gemma from which it differs in being much larger, having the apex of the fron wings subangulated and the outer margin of the hind wings sinuated; the wings above reddish in some parts, with much larger marginal black spots; below the central streaks are more distinct, reddish and different in outline."
The last distinction is a mistake, gemma showing the same peculiar serrate projections of the second discal, secondaries underside (a character carried to a still further extent in the closely allied pephredo Godman [19017 Biol. Centr. Am. Rhop.? 11, p. 65 7; 111, pl. 8, fig. 12, mislabelled ((gemma"] which thus stands towards hilaria Godman 11901, Biol. Centr. Am., 11, p. 6581 in the same way as pyracmon does towards henshawi) ; otherwise the description is reasonably clear and has been re- peated in a condensed form 45 years later by Weymer who alludes to the male too -at least I think he does, because of two details, the "reddish" aureoles in secondaries upperside, and the "dentate" lines in secondaries underside; but his refer- ence to the sexmark as being ('large" is extremely unfortunate (though in keeping with the general mess Weymer makes of the Neonympha) .
Pyracmon from a North American pair may be described thus :
72 Psyche [Septa-Dec.
Neonympha pyracmon Butl.
Primaries : with full evenly rounded termen ; secondaries : termen sinuate, with slight projection on Cul in both sexes, but the wing comparatively small and round (i.e. not as developed as in the next species).
Male upperside: velvety brown, i.e. of a smoother and lighter color than maniola or dorothea, with dull cinereous, in- stead of fuscous, cilia. Secondaries:
second discal visible as a
wavy dark fuscous line margined outwardly with fulvous red; przterminal spots rimmed with the same bright hue (very different from the pale aureoles of maniola); clot of similar fulvous red tint above Cu2, corresponding to triangular diffu- sion of subterminal bar beneath.
Androconial mark: short and narrow, much smaller than in dorothea, with deeply sinuate outer edge, its crests traversed by the veins; only just reaching second discal at these points; consisting of three patches (in Cu2, Cul and M3) decreasing upwards, roughly trapezoid in shape but with outer sides deeply scooped; and of a very slight crescent (instead of triangle) in cell R + M with its convexity against cross vein and reaching down to about level of Cul. (See fig. 4.) Female upperside: less differentiated from male than in dorothea, with similar to male but broader red rims, red blot and red margin to wavy second discal on warm brownish ground in secondaries; primaries with distinct reddish second discal.
Male and female, underside: both wings smooth greyish ochreous with a suggestion of olivaceous and very sparse striz. Primaries: lines running subparallel to each other and termen; all three comparatively thick, of a clear fulvous red on both wings; przterminal dots blended into a continuous fulvous red line. Secondaries: lines, especially second discal, extraor- dinarily developed, continuous, broad, clearly displaying their mellow fulvous red tint; second discal so strongly toothed outwardly in its bold course (essentially of a different, direct, type than in dorothea or maniola where its outward deviation in MI causes the eye to miss its connection with the second discal of primaries) up to costa, where it connects with the second discal of primaries, that it interferes with the marginal markings as it projects terminally along veins Cu2, Cul, M2,
19421 Nearctic Neonympha 73
MI and Re as if attracted by the metal of the przterminal serration; on Cu2 its projection practically unites with the swerve of the subterminal line) thus forming a kind of roof over the W of the silver line, the bar being transformed here into a fulvous red triangular blot. The palish cinereous patch with a fulvous red diffusion of the aureoles, is in contact with the second discal because of the latter's .development terminally, not because of its own basally as it is in dorothea; it is weakly dusted rather than striated with dark scales and produces a smoother) slightly opalescent effect due perhaps to the prox- imity of the florid second discal line.
Male) exp. 19.8 plesiotype, "Palmerlz) Cochise Co., July '05" Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
Other specimens: male and female (exp. 19.6) "Globe, Gila Co., Sept. 1 I)', ex Coll. C. F. dos Passos) Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.; male "Paradize, Ariz.) Poling", Carn. Mus.; male "C. J. Paine Coil.") Mus. Comp. 2001.; male "Cochise Co." ex Coll. W. C. Wood, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
It remains to tackle the fourth species. In 1876 W. H. Ed- wards) working) it may be assumed, in a bad light (note the "plumbaginous~') , thus described a new "Euptychia" : "Euptychia henshawi, n. sp. male. Exp. 1.5 inch. Upperside light fuscous~ immaculate. Underside of primaries russet, deepest along inner margin) brownish towards costa; crossed by four wavy ferruginous lines, one of which is parallel to the hind margin) midway between cell and margin, one just beyond cell and curving around it to costa) the third crosses middle of cell and the fourth is a demi-line ending at median nervure; there are also four transverse streaks near base of wing. Sec-
ondaries grey-brown) slightly russet tinted) crossed by two ferruginous lines, the outer one irregular) wavy towards mar- gin, shaded on its inner side;
the outer, near base, rather
zigzag than wavy; some fine streaks on basal area; the hind margin ashy brown streaked with dark ferruginous; showing four black eyelets, small, equal, placed near the edge of the wing, in pairs on the upper median and next upper interspaces, each with a plumbaginous streak across the marginal side and through the middle, but not reaching quite across; irregular streaks or slight patches of dull silver in the interspaces both towards outer and inner angle; the margin next inner angle edged with ferruginous. Body above fuscous~ beneath gray,
74 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
the abdomen buff, legs gray; palpi gray with black hair in front; antennz fuscous, imperfectly annulated with whitish; club fuscous above, russet below.
('Female. Exp. 1.7 inch. Both wings russet in disc, primaries most brightly. The margins fuscous as is also costal edge of primaries; on secondaries the eyelets of underside are indicated by small dark fuscous spots. Underside as in male. "From Arizona and New Mexico, collected in 1874 by H. W. Henshaw of the Wheeler expedition in honor of whom I name the species, and in 18 75 by Lieut. W. C. Carpenter." The description of the male is worthless for all purposes of determination and I have ignored it in my bibliographical sum- mary. A light fuscous Neonympha expanding 1.5 inch with no markings, red flush or androconial brand might be, for all one knows, an oversized gemma-although on the other hand it is possible to argue that the describer was merely in a hurry to get to the interesting underside. The "demi-line" obviously refers to some chance sequence of striz (and what is further left without comment fits at least seven species of Neonympha). Size? ground color of underside and description of lines in sec- ondaries underside apply perhaps better to dorothea edwardsi than to the species which I hold to be the true henshawi Edw. The words "New Mexico") where henshawi is not yet known to occur, suggest that there were some specimens of edwardsi (not however the one taken, much later? by Snow) among the series Edwards was examining as he wrote. On the other hand, the description of the lines in primaries upperside and of the cinereous scaling in secondaries underside does not fit edwardsi (or any race of dorothea) at all: it exactly fits henshawi. In fact? if this male were a hybrid between the two, with moreover a strain of gemma, it could not have been better described. Such a freak being unlikely, I am forced to dismiss this con- fused and composite picture altogether as not applying to any known insect.
The description of the female however is that of a fairly recognisable henshawi (a form of which was figured as pyrac- mon by Godman four years later) differing from the female of dorothea in the two main details cited: '(russet in the disc, primaries most brightly'' and "small dark fuscous spots" which in dorothea are comparatively large and dim. As the tint which Edwards calls "russet" seems to be on the yellow, rather than
19421 Nearctic Neonympha 75
on the red side (for example, the costal yellowish brown of the primaries underside in dorothea or the ground color upperside in female auicala), "russet" cannot apply to the pale reddish female of doyothea edwardsi, a specimen of which Edward3 had. "Underside as in male" merely suggests that when Ed- wards picked up the fresher female of the two he possessed) a henshawi, the general impression he had formed from the in- spection of his mixed males was based less on his specimens of dorothea, than on those of henshawi. But again) the back of an entomologist7s mind is not a very sound basis for the decipher- ing of his descriptions, and so a further accumulation of clues is necessary.
In 1887, 11 years later, Edwards, in one of the finest works on butterflies ever published, gave a lovely plate illustrating his species, the models being a male and female from his collec- tion. These are before me as I write and are not dorothea ed- wardsi. Except that the termen in the female is perhaps not sinuated enough, these figures are admirable. The accompany- ing description, which is far superior to the original one, will be examined presently. Edwards adds that the resemblance of his species to gemma is close in regard to the markings) and de- scribes the egg which Doll sent him from Arizona in 188 1, but which did not hatch (thus leaving us in doubt as to which of four possible species laid the dome-shaped turquoise blue ovum Edwards figures). In 1891, Charles J. Maynard described N. henshawi Edw. ("Henshaw's Quaker") as follows: "About the size of the type N. euritris, but is more reddish or rusty above, a dark band crosses middle of both wings) and there are two black dots in middle of outer border. Beneath finely marked with minute lines between the common bands. On outer portion of fore wings there is a wavy band but no spots. In the middle of hind wing is a whitish space containing four dots in pairs, each with a silver center. Above and below these are silver markings." There is not a shadow of doubt that this blunt description refers to the species (though not to the same specimen) that Edwards figured, and the humble woodcut Maynard gives of the underside of a female right hind wing represents that species quite unmistakably - which is a highly important moment in the nomenclatorial history of this unfor- tunate butterfly, and which would have prevented me, if noth- ing else did, from switching the name henshawi to the species
76 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
dorothea had I wished to retain the more familiar name for a butterfly which appears to be more widely distributed this side of the border. Godman's mention of "henshawi" (11, p. 658) may as well refer to dorothea; Weymer's description of "hen- shawi" in what Holland politely calls a "monograph" of the Neonymphc, is much too slapdash and muddled to be taken into any account at all.
But to return to Edwards7 description in Butt. N. Am.: "Male. Exp. 1.5 inch. Upperside dark brown, often with russet over the extra-discal areas of both wings; some examples have an ill defined patch of russet on the median interspaces of primaries, and there is usually a russet edging to hind margin secondaries next anal angle; on the middle of same margin two small black spots not always present; fringes dark grey. Under- side either brown or russet, thickly dusted with yellow-white scales, more yellow beyond the discal band of secondaries; the whole surface finely streaked and dotted with red brown; pri- maries crossed by three wavy red brown lines, two of which enclose the discal band, the other lying nearly midway between the band and margin, often macular; some examples have a demi-line crossing cell to median; the discal lines are continued across secondaries, the outer one often projecting roundly on second subcostal nervule; a short sinuous line an anal angle; on middle of hind margin a large suboval patch, the ground of which is dark brown, sprinkled with whitish scales; within this, in upper median and discoidal interspaces, a pair of velvet black spots, each with an inverted "T" shaped patch of silver; in the interspaces towards outer angle a pair of silver dashes each, and in lower median a silver serration, and a bar in sub- median. Body above dark brown, beneath grey brown; legs same; palpi grey with many black hairs; antennae blackish, annulated with light; club black above, ferruginous at tip and beneath.
"Female. Exp. 1.7 inch.; russet, brown about the margin; spots on secondaries as in male. Underside of primaries russet, of secondaries yellow brown; marked like the male. "New Mexico, Arizona, Colorado. First taken by H. W. Henshaw of the Wheeler Exploring Expedition, 1874. Morris- son afterwards brought examples from Arizona and B. Neu- moegen from Oak Creek Canon, Colorado."
It is evident that here again Edwards had a series of mixed
19421 Nearctic Neonympha 77
specimens before him. Only the Arizona ones, and not all of them, were henshawi. The "patch of russet" coming directly after the "russet" of the first line is not mere repetition, but seems to imply the difference that Edwards might have noticed between Henshaw's specimens with diffuse fulvous and a ful- vous patched New Mexican race of dorothea. The "not always present" is less an excuse for the "immaculate" of the original description than an impression produced by the contrast be- tween the distinct spots of henshawi arid the rather dim blotches of dorothea. The abundantly streaked yellow underside is henshawi all over; so is the continuation of the lines from primaries across secondaries. The "often roundly projecting" refers to specimens of dorothea. The "suboval patch" is again henshawi. The original description of the female has been slightly revised as Edwards was evidently puzzled at having such different specimens of females. But taken all in all, I think we can distinguish here, through the fade-out of dorothea, an elegant and correct delineation of both sexes of the species which in 1887 corresponded to Edwards7 final concept of his henshawi, the butterfly figured.
An examination of the eight specimens which are labelled, I understand, by Edwards himself, and come from his collection (now in the Carnegie Museum) reveals that five of these are dorothea edwardsi while the other three (two males and one female) represent the insect which I here definitely fix as Neonympha hensham. There is no doubt in my mind that the female belongs to the same colony as the two males, and there is a reasonable amount of probability that it is the exact speci- men of the original description which in the corresponding passage conveys rather neatly the general impression produced by this remarkably well conserved female. This noted, the following summary of distinctive characters will settle the identity of N. henshawi.
Neonympha henshawi Edw .
Typical race : primaries : roughly elongated apically, with slightly concave (fuller in female) slanting termen ; second- aries: terminally sinuate, more so in female where they are very developed, with a projection (in some almost caudal) in termen on Cui; tornus angulate in both sexes. Upperside: cilia dull cinereous as in pyracmon. Male: of a smooth brown tint
78 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
rather as in pyracmon. Primaries: with a cloud of dull fulvous discally (presumably less evident in fresh specimens) ; M3 and lower corner of cell R + M outlined in same. Secondaries: with two prseterminal spots, very distinct, small, oval, unrimmed; dimly discernible second discal line which is dark fuscous, tinged outwardly with diffuse dull fulvous. Androconial mark: resembling that of pyracmon, but more expanded (conspicuously so in faded specimens) towards dor- sum; consisting of three patches: large rhomboid with concave outer edge in Cua; a much narrower one in Cui, slightly con- cave outwardly; smallish patch in M3; and of a crescent rather tending to a triangle but still retaining pyracmon's character, although larger and reaching down in cell R + M to somewhat beyond the level of Cui. (See fig. 3.)
Female upperside: primaries rather bright tawny fulvous in disc, otherwise fulvous brown inclining to fuscous towards base and terminally; second discal brownish, distinct; first discal suffused with the brownish shading (but distinct in all other specimens I have examined which thus look more definitely banded than the only female of the typical race). Secondaries: fulvous in disc, fuscous basally, with a fuscous border in which the fulvous aureoles of the two distinct black small oval prse- terminal spots are broadened basally, and fuse to form an inner band.
Male and female underside: ground color similar on both wings (except for a space between second discal and subtermi- nal in secondaries where it is lighter), of pyracmon type, but rather drabber, more yellowish, and regularly striated with browner striae (except in said space). Primaries: second discal, corresponding to termen, angularly curving around cell R + M from costa (less angularly in some females where it thus re- sembles pyracmon), then sloping towards first discal with its concavity outward, subparallel here to subterminal which runs midway between second discal and termen, all through sub- parallel to termen, to reach costa. Secondaries: second discal tending, especially in female, to be straight (cp. the primal straightness of its course in pyracmon despite the dentations) , and distinctly passing in front of the upper V-mark to connect with second discal line of primaries. Cinereous irroration re- duced to small weak suboval patch in middle of outer third, speckled rather than striated with darker (dull brownish)
19421 Nearctic Neonympha 79
scales; completely surrounded by ground color, with broadish yellowish brown diffusion of aureoles within. Subterminal line thin and only slightly curved in Cu2 with very slight or diffused bar (invisible in most females) not interrupting the line which is thus perceptibly continued up as a slight inner margin of patch (very clear and straight in some females). Female, lectotype, exp. 2 1 -3, and male, paratype, exp. 20.4, labelled in Edwards' hand, "Henshawi M., Arka," Carn. Mus. Paratypes: male with same label, Carn. Mus.; two males, no locality, ex Holl. Coll., Carn. Mus.
None of the following specimens examined belong to the type race, and the females fit in especially well with Maynard's description and figured outline: one male, exp. 20.5, "Ari- zona", ex Coll. C. F. dos Passos; Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.; three females (one exp. 22.9) "So Ariz., 0. C. Polling, ex Coll. A. G. Weeks," Mus. Comp. Zool.; one female "Chiricahua Mts., D. K. Dunkan, 24.VI.33", ex Coll. C. F. dos Passos, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.; one female, "Cochise Co., ex Coll. W. C. Wood," Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
Two males from Pima Co., "Mud Springs, Santa Catalina, 6.500 f. 17-20.VII.16", Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., and a female, "Cochise Co., C. J. Paine", Mus. Comp. Zool., offer some curi- ous "pyracmonoid" characters. One of these males (exp. 18.7) has a slight rusty broadening of the second discal line in sec- ondaries underside, which thus seems to run closer to the cinereous patch than in typical henshawi. The other male and the female show a definite rusty diffusion of this line near costa and another projection where it tends to unite with a rusty (though less red than in pyracmon) blot above the silver W.
Two males with Edwards' labels in pencil "Henshawi M. Ariza" ex Coll. Holland, Carn. Mus., obviously represent a definite race. There is more dull fulvous red spread over the primaries, so that these might be described as of that color, with dark fuscous sexmark traversed by fulvous veins, and rather pale fuscous shadings terminally and subcostally; sec- ond discal line in secondaries broadly margined discally with warm reddish fulvous; aureoles of the same tint. Underside
curiously resembling hilaria (especially in one of the two specimens) owing to the transverse spaces between the lines being alternately darker and lighter, and rather brightly yel-
80 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
lowish between the second discal and subterminal lines of both wings. Six females (2 females "Arizona E. G. Graham Acc. 8157. St. Rita Mts., 5.VII.27", Carn. Mus., 1 female, same region, same collection, "Florida Camp 8.VII.27", Carn. Mus., and 3 females "Huachuca Mts., 6.800 f., 2 1, 23, 23,V1.36", ex Coll. C. F. dos Passos, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.), belonging, I think, to the same form as the variegated males, may be de- scribed as: fuscous with contrasting warm reddish bands and margins to lines, and with underside very like Godman's figure. A few words may be added concerning the male armature of the four species under consideration. In dorothea the uncus looks straighter and the clasp broader (more arched dorsally and fuller ventrally) than in maniola, pyracmon or henshawi. I do not perceive much difference between the organs pyrac- mon and henshawi, except perhaps a slightly thinner uncus in the latter. Of the four species, maniola seems to have the nar- rowest clasp (concave ventrally, with elongated spur). Partly because several superficial characters proved sufficient to easily separate the four species, and partly because the number of specimens representing each was not compatible with a long series of dissection, the examination of the male armature was limited to half a dozen preparations, two of which were made for me by Mr. W. P. Comstock at the American Museum of Natural History. For the genitalia of maniola I used a slide prepared in 1934 by Dr. Marson Bates. Judging by the fact that he prepared a slide of dorothea too, it seems fair to sup- pose that he had noticed the difference between these two in- sects long before I did. Further study might reveal whether the shape of the clasps is constant (it was identical in 3 speci- mens of dorothea), or, if not, what is the specific scope of its variation.
In conclusion, my thanks are due to Mr. W. P. Comstock of the American Museum of Natural History for his invariable assistance and advice, and for the loan of their material; to Mr. C. F. dos Passos for loaning me his specimens; to Prof. Nathan Banks for placing at my disposal the series of the Museum of Comparative Zoology; to Dr. C. T. Parsons of that institution for assisting me in several matters; to Dr. A. Avinoff and Dr. W. R. Sweadner of the Carnegie Museum who not only patiently answered my queries concerning the Edwards series, but did me the exceptional favor of sending me all the "hen- shawi" material of the Carnegie Museum.
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