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V. Nabokov.
The Nearctic Forms of Lycaeides Hüb. (Lycænidae, Lepid.).
Psyche 50:87-99, 1943.

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19431 Nearctic Forms of Lycasides
THE NEARCTIC FORMS OF LYCBIDES HUB.
(LYCZENIDX, LEPIDOPTERA)
BY V. NABOKOV
Museum of Comparative Zoology
What follows is a brief summary of some conclusions mainly relative to the classification of the American forms of Lycceides Hubner, 1823 (Plebejinse). This genus comprises at least half- a-dozen structural (genitalic) unities which may be termed species, and a full account of its morphology will be published in due time. Except in one inevitable case, no new names are introduced, as it is felt that further study might result in some equilibrium of the variational scheme in Lycceides, so as to avoid a chaotic accumulation of poorly balanced "subspecies." Owing to the abundant Holarctic material in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and thanks to generous loans from the American' Museum of Natural History and from private col- lections (I have especially to thank Mr. H. K. Clench and Mr. Don B. Stallings), a considerable number of specimens could be examined; of these, some 350 were dissected and measured.
Three specific categories may be distinguished as affecting the classification of the Nearctic forms: argyrognomon Bergstrasser, 1779, Nomencl. 2:76 (Tutt, 1909, Brit. Butt. 3 pi. SO, fig. 2, male genit.; argus [L.] Hiibner, [1800], Samml. europ. Schmett. fig. 316, male; Scudder, 1872, 4th Ann. Rep. Peabody Acad. Sci. 1871:54; Reverdin, 1917, in Oberthur, Et. Up. Comp. 14 pi. 1, 2, fig. 1, la, male genit.; idas L [now. prasocc], auct., pro part.; won qyrognomon Beuret, 1935, Forster, 1936).
scudderi Edwards, 1861, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1861:164 male; Scudder, 1889, Butt. N. Engl. 2:967, line 22; Stempffer, 1933, Bull. Soc. Ent. France 102:110, 111, fig. 1, male genit.; non scudderi auct. [nec female scudderi Edw., 1861, 1.c. = (Agriades) aquilo Boisduval, 18321 melissa Edwards, 1873, Trans. Amer. Ent. Soc. 4:346 (Mead, 1875, Rep. Lep. Colorado etc.:783, pi. 36, fig. 5, 6, male, 7, 8, female; Chapman, 1917, in Oberthur, Et. Lhp. Comp. 14, pi. 9, fig. 25, male genit.). 'Published with the aid of a grant from the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College.




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88 Psyche [Sept.-~ec.
Besides being dissimilar both in specific expression of generic external variation and in the basic shape of the male armature (e.g., the "retroussP spur [processus superior of the valve] in argyrognomon, the spare tapering weakly hooked falx in melissa) these three unities are separated throughout the nu- merous forms that cluster around the three peaks of speciation by constant relations between certain parts of that organ when its dorsum is viewed from below. If F ("forearm") denotes the length of the falx from its distal point to its elbow; H ("humerulus") the length of the falx from elbow to shoulder point; and U the length of the uncus lobe from its tip to the shoulder of the falx, then the following three categories can be formulated :
(1) argyrognomon:
H greater than U, F/H smaller than in (2) (2) scudderi: H equal to U, F/H smaller than in (3) (3) melissa: H smaller than U.
The Palearctic and Nearctic forms of argyrognomon are not only absolutely conspecific, but in one or two cases are strik- ingly alike exteriorly. Argyrognomon was presumably derived from a form of which the Central Asiatic agnata Staudinger, 1889, is the closest image to-day. Scudderi and the Asiatic cleobis Bremer, 186 1 ( ?subsolanus Eversmann, 185 1 2, are, except for a more robust build in the cleobis organ, practically identical in genitalic structure (and share at least two peculiar underside characters), but either have not been in touch for a longer time or are coincident species i.e., separately evolved from initial argyrognomon-like structures (scudderi decreasing in the argyrognomon H while cleobis arrived at the same pro- portional result by an increase in the argyrognomon U). We find these two on parallel lines which after passing through two coincident stages have widely diverged to produce melissa on one hand and ismenias Meigen, 1830 (Heydemann, 1931; insula~is Leech, Verity, 1921, nec Leech) on the other. This scheme of course is not a phylogenetic tree but' merely its shadow on a plane surface, since a sequence in time is not really deducible from a synchronous series. What seems certain, however, is that scudderi in its actual structure stands about Eversmann's type of subsolanus, if it still exists, should be examined: his lucid description (grotesquely mistranslated by Ruhl and thus copied by Seitz) seems to me to fit quite exactly the species known as cleobis Bremer.



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19431 Nearctic Forms of Lycceides 89
midway between argyrognomon and melissa - somewhat closer perhaps to the former than to the latter. The Lycceides variation in color and pattern as expressed, in more or less constant races of each species can only be briefly alluded to here. Its scope in regard to the male upperside does not seem so wide in the American argyrognomon and scudderi as it is in the palearctic argyrognomon and cleobis, in both of which the upperside may be, racially, almost or totally devoid of optical scales, thus leaving the richly pigmented fuscous sur- face intact. In the nearctic groups, both in argyrognomon and in scudderi, the optical spread transcends at least the sub- terminal limit so that the insulse of the secondaries (the sil- houetted in fuscous pigment counterparts of the underside prse- terminal spots), if not circumviated more or less completely by the violet blue, are left sometimes encased in a slightly less compact fuscous which the eye sees as a thick, sometimes crenulated, "black border." The effect of crenulation may be enhanced by the strong development of terminal triangles and cilian markings in both these species as well as in ismenias. In melissa the blue extends at least to the circumviating stage but more often swamps the insulse to reach a terminal limit (that last bulwark of tenuous fuscous which is not crossed in any Blue) so that on the upperside the male melissa may be said to be (as far as is known) the least variable of the poly- morphic Lycseides species.
On the underside, however, all three pass through a gamut of coloration just as wide as in the palearctic forms. Each of them goes racially from the nearest approach to the basic pig- mentation of the upper surface, namely from brown or' brown- ish fawn, through fawn, pale fawn and greyish fawn, to greyish and almost pure white. If a combination of characters does not produce in both sexes some striking and constant aspect in a more or less extensive population, and insofar as tangible objects, and not ecological or other causalities, should receive systematic names, it seems to me quite useless to separate a series of, say, pale underside Yakima melissa from equally pale Nevada series, or a darkish underside Texas series from a similar one collected in Saskatchewan.
The rhythms in the pigmentation of the spots, in the spread of the underside optical scaling and in the structure of the mar-



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90 Psyche
, [Sept.-Dec.
ginal ornamentation ' cannot be treated here; but a few words in regard to the disposition of the extradiscal series as I under- stand it may be of use. What we see as a transverse, more or less sinuous "line" or "row" of spots seems to me to be the outcome of two unrelated phylogenetic phenomena. The "up- per" part of the "row" (from the last radial interspace to the last median one) is formed by spots having radiated fanwise from the discoidal owing to an apicoid extension of the wing texture; the "lower" part (spot in Cyl and the two Cua spots, separated by the memory of an Al nervule) have been pulled out from a subcellular position (in the proximal corners of their respective interspaces) presumably by a cubitoid extension which did not necessarily occur at the same time as the other. Had not a third phenomenon taken place - namely the ap- pearance and expansion of subterminal ornamental markings ("caudse pavonis") which held the advancing spots at bay - the latter might have gained the practically prseterminal posi- tion which they reach in some Glaucopsychinos. This is why the classical conception of a row of ocelli as the result of a statically placed line or band having broken up into spots, seems to me absolutely irrelevant to the understanding of the Lycsenidae pattern. Insofar as spots have been evolved in this family, they occupy different positions in different species or genera, and what we see is not the remnants of a definite band in a definite place, but this or that stage of a more or less co- ordinated longitudinal movement of spots distad along the inter- spaces (certain comet-tail traces of this progress are sometimes caught and fixed aberrationally). In a word it is not a row of squares'on a chessboard, but a shifting line of attacking pawns. Lycaeides argyrognomon Bergstrasser
As represented by my material, the nearctic argyrognomon forms, contrary to those of melissa, may be for convenience's sake divided into groups A and B ("white underside" and "fawn underside") and each may be subdivided again into 1 and 2 ("weakly marked" and "strongly marked"). A1 to A2 is expressed by argyrognomon anna Edwards, 1861 (Proc. Ac. 3The latter shows a tendency towards obliteration throughout the Nearctic Lycceides - a feature unknown racially (except perhaps in the case of the Corsican argyrognomon bellieri Obthr) among western Palsearctic forms and paralleled only by certain Central Asiatic ones.



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1943 I Nearctic Forms of Lycaides 9 1
Nat. Sci. Phil. 1861: 163; Strecker, 1874, Lep.: 88, pi. 10, fig. 4, male, fig. 5., female; Stempffer, 1933, Bull. Soc. Ent. France 102 : 11 1, fig. 2, male genit) .4 "Typical" fairly weak anna is represented by series from California (seven stations), Nevada and Oregon. A stronger anna comes from "Glacier Pt." (it is figured by Wright, 1906, Butt. W. Cst, fig. 384, anna), and a form of anna with all mark- '
ings as well developed as in any Lyc&des is provided by a pair from "Pt. Arena," Mendocino Co. What I suppose is ricei Cross ( 1% 7, Pan-Pacific Ent. 13 : 88) is represented by a small, very weak underside anna form with a uniformly brown female from Oregon ("Kirk") and by a series without locality data mislabeled "annetta." A form from "Yakha R." and another from "Vancouver lsi." may be also placed under anna. The other, B group with fawn or whitish fawn underside, represented by long series, has apparently never been detected before and may eventually require a subspecific name to coun- terbalance the anna group. Of El I have a series from Wash- ington ("Brewster)') : these specimens, if I am American- minded, look like unusually dingy or dusty underside "and and if I am European-minded, curiously resemble certain weak Swiss forms. Of B2 I have series from Brit. Col. ('"B.C.," "Fernie," "Cranbrook," "Michel," "Landsdowne") and from Alberta ("Calgary," "Didsbury," "Carbon," "Laggan"), dark- ish "black-border" specimens (see above, discussion of Lycsides pattern), with an underside resembling series of argyrognomon '
singularis Heydemann, 1932, and other strong W. European races.
Lycaides argyrognomon, trans. ad scudderi Edwards I have not yet examined Edwards' specimens of kodiak Edwards (1870, Trans. Am. Ent. Soc, 3 :20). Judging by its O.D. and the colored photographs professing to illustrate it (Wright, 1906, op. cit., fig. 365; Holland, 1930, Butt. Bk. pi. 66, fig. 14, 151, it seems somewhat similar to what I have as .
.. "kodiak" from Alaska ("McKinley7').
In this series a twofold individual variation (on the general basis of a dingy underside tone with faint dull fulvous lunules) 'In the case of this form, as in that of the nom. sp. argyrognomim and meha, I give only the most pertinent bibliographic data. A fuller synonymy, as well as complete data and acknowledgments in regard to the series of specimens mentioned here, will be &m in the main work.



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92 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
easily allows the eye to sort out the "argyrognomon" and the "scudderi" specimens. Genitalically they do represent these two species but the twofold variation mentioned is shared by ex- amples of structural argyrognomon and structural scudderi in such a way as not to correspond to the definite specific differ- ences in the valve and the falx; so that not only are they inseparable by the shuttling external characters, but all the ex- amples look as if they belonged on the whole to one "arctic" race of one and the same species. Here we put our finger on something very like the actual evolution of scudderi from argy- rognomon, and I have discovered an analogical case in the Palearctic, where cleobi~ kenteana Staudinger, 1892, ( ?ida Grum Grshmailo? 1891)5 is linked up with a most interesting (undescribed) "black" form of argyrognomon from North- Eastern Asia. Otherwise, throughout their nearctic distribution wherever a scudderi form comes from the same locality as an argyrognornon one, both series are correctly separable at a glance. On the other hand in the case of forms from widely separate regions, such as the distinctly marked Glacier Pt. form of argyrogrzowzon anna and the ridiculously similar talcum white underside scudderi from Riding Mts.? Manitoba (kindly loaned me by Dr. Gertsch of the Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. and by Don B. Stallings), the two can be distinguished externally only by the wider terminal space in the former.
Lycxides scudderi Edwards
scudderi Edwards.
The types are lost. The name is precariously poised on the brink of synonymity into which it is drawn by the alien aquilo female. The type locality is not the vague "Lake Winnipeg" as given by Edwards? but the more Western "mouth of the Saskatchewan" mentioned by Scudder who took the type speci- men there in 1860. I find it just possible however to save the name by applying it to the Lyceides species the organ of which was figured by Stempffer in 1933 (from a Brit. Col. specimen). Up to now it has been confused by a11 authors with the Eastern subspecies of meli~sa~ Ontario specimens of which Edwards mis- identified as his scudde~i in 1862 (Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- delphia 1862 : 2 2 5).
'I question the accepted identity of kenteana Staudinger with Grum Grsh- maYIo's ida from Amdo.




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Most of the Northern specimens are greyish, whitish-grey or white on the underside, but in some cases, when sympathet- ically examined, or when the whitish bloom has worn off, may be said to fit in with the {'dark grey" of Edwards' very poor description.
scudderi scdderi Edw.
Male. Upperside: rather strong termid -line; discernable insulz in secondaries. Underside: greyish; fuscous spotting delicate but fairly distinct; white arches ray-like in secondaries, Le. separated throughout by the greyish ground dong the vein (a character not represented in my meZissa material) and fused ~ t h the extradiscal halos; fuscom arches on both wings fairly strong, though not distinctly pointed ; fulvous arches weak, thin, disconnected from pr~terminal spots (a character found also in "weak" specimens of wgyrognomon ama and in some meka metta) by the ground which is quite whitish towards the termen; pmterminal spots in secondaries touched up with ("aquamarine") optica1 scales conspicuous only in Cul and an- dIy; quite strong terminal line with well4eveloped triangles and cilian points. [Extradiscal spot in Cul aberrationa1Iy dis- tended as it was in Edwards? type specimen.] Male, neotype, "Saskatchewan. Kennkott." Slide No. 168. Mus. Comp 2001.
This description holds good for most Northern individuals of $c&deri swdderi (except that the iridescence may develop in a greater number of spots and that the ground may be quite white throughout with a pale blue dusting of basal optical scaling), Noraem females are generally "blue" with, if at all, weakly developed fulv~us arches, upperside. My material comes from: Saskatchewan ("Narlan") ; Manitoba (6(McCreary,'7 "Beulah))' 'LRidhg Mts.") ; Minnesota ("Pequot," "Arrowhead Trail") ; Brit. Cok ("B.C,," "Atlin))' i<Heffley Ck.") ; Alberta ("Foot- hills," (iBanff,?' '< Jasper") ; and Yukon ("White Horse,'' "Mayo)'). If, as 1 believe, the
insect figured by Gibson
( l92O) Rep. Can. Arct, Exp, 3! pl. 3, fig. 15, male) is a speci- men of scdderi scudderi, then lt IS its first and only representa- tion.
From "Mt. Rainier," Washington, 1 have a series of remark- able scudderi specimens expressing the same variation as amettu does for melissa and as rkei {if correctIy identified}



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Psyche
does for argyrognomow awa. Underside: shiny pale greyish white with conspicuaus pale blue basal scaling in secondaries and quite distinct extradiscal spotting in primaries, but with an almost total lack of all other markings so that except for a gleam of aquamarine and a hint of fulvous in the cubital inter- spaces the secondaries seem quite spotless to the naked eye, Eastward from Manitoba, firesumably through Northern On- tario and Quebec, sc~dderi scudderi intergrades into a Labrador form which differs from the typical mainly in a reduction of size. This is probably the scaddmi of M6schler (1874, Ent. Zek Stettin 35 : l5S-lS6) which judging by that author's naive but clear description is not the ((smdderi'' of %udder a1though of course the latter form may reach much further h n is so far authenticaIly known. Of this small sc~dderi (gmerally labelled '(astery' in colIections) 1 have Labrador specimens from tiH~pedale'F and "Sawbjll.'' Whatever may be the 'daster7' from '(Labrador" the armature of which is figured by Chapman (Ig17, op. tit. PI. 15, fig. 45-46), it belongs to meha. The Newfoundland aster Edwards, 1882, Can. Ent. 14: 194-195 (1898 HolIand> op. c&: 266, pl. 301 fig. 4OJ 4& 47) is presum- ably the same Little Blue Argus that had been discovered on Carbonear Id. by Gosse in 1834, Of this I have only two (white, sparsely but distinctly spotted underside) females {''Salmonier") which until I see the types 1 camot assign to *% scddwi Of the Nova Scotian empetri Freeman (1938, Can. Ent. 70:62 ; et 1943, ibid., 75 :37), which shows in the under- side a striking development of the fwcous spotting upon a grey- ish-fawn ground, 1 have as yet only dissected one paratype (Clench ColI.) and in this specimen one important genitalic character seems about to slip out of the sc~dderi specific seriesa6 scdderi lotis Lintner,
(1878, 30th Rep N. Y. St. Mus. Nat. Hist. 1876: 169; am lotis Liml. uuct.)
Under this name I propose to group various integrading forms of the Southern sc~dderi section. They all disclose on the underside a neater development of the ca~& puvmis and, in sume cases7 an inclination to fawn in the ground color. In Dr. T. N. Freema ha very kindly provided me now with a number of , qxcimms of em#et*. Although connected specikdy with scdde~, it EX- hibits certain curious (reversional?) characters echoed by the most primitive of the Centrat Asiatic forms.




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1943 I Nearctic Forms of Lycceides 95
other words they approach nearer to the conventional type of the Lyczides, although generally the exiguity of the ornamental band and the scudderi character of the white arches give them away. Lotis Lintner, which has nothing to do with the "lotis" figured by Wright, Barnes-McDunnough, Comstock and Hol- Iand (in the case of Wright, 1906, op. cit., fig. 387) it is a male anna coupled with the female of a not even congeneric species) and in the case of Holland, 1930, op. cit., pl. 66, fig: 18-20, a fairly typical melissa), seems to be known only in two speci- mens: a female labelled "L, Lota Lintn. 5668 Type" in the Lintner coll., which is an unquestionable scudderi female of the more Southern "brown" sort, and a male labelled "4878 Mendocino, California" and "No. 6139 coll. Hy. Edwards Lyc. Lotis Lintn." in the Amer, Mus. Nat. Hist. This unique male) except for showing a trace of fulvous subterminally, in the pri- maries underside, fits in exactly with Lintner's really admirable description. The data he gives is: "Mendocino, California. Two examples. Coll. of W. H. Edwards." The male type is apparently lost. The Hy. Edwards specimen is the one men- tioned (but not figured) by Barnes and McDunnough (1916, op. cit. : 169, lin. 12, 131, and having dissected it I found as ex- pected from its appearance, that it was conspecific with scudderi. I have various forms of scudderi Zotis, from Idaho ('(Hey- burn Pk"), Montana ("Martina," '(Uranus Peak"), Wyo- ming ( "Yellowstone," "Jackson Lake," "Jackson Hole"), Colorado ("Telluride," '(San Isabel Forest") and "?N.M." The Jackson and Telluride series have a curious increase in the F suggestive of a slight approach to melissa though otherwise typical scudderi.
"Black border" (see p. 89) specimens (i.e, similar in this to the Alberta and B. C. argyrognomon) are referable to atrapm- textus Field ( 1939, Journ. Kansas Ent. SOC. 12 (4) : 135). I have such dark specimens from Idaho ("Priest R.") and Montana ("King's Hill"), with intergrades. In the case of scudderi the interest of this variation lies in its producing the nearest ap- proach known to a lightish form of the normally very dark cleo bis Bremer (from Sayan Mts.)
Other Palearctic forms (all from Turkestan) which reveal a scudderi armature (but have been assigned to ismenias) are: dschagatai (? Grum Grsh., 1890) Stempffer) 1931; ~gina (? Grum Grsh.) 1891; nec Leech) 1894, nec Seitz, 1909, nec Oberthur) 1910) Forster, 1936, and buchara Forster) 1936 (? dschagatai Grum Grsh.) .




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96 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
Lyczides melissa Edwards
Melissa is the commonest and most widely distributed nearc- tic Lyczides, or more exactly its structure seems to be the most popular achievement in the genus. There is some indication that in some form or other it reaches Labrador in the North- East. For the Palearctic, it has been reported from the Lower Volga (as sa~eptensis Chapman, 19 17, in Oberthur) op. cit., 14, pl. 12, male genit., et 1918, Ent. Rec. 3012-5) on the basis of specimens collected by Sheldon and Jones (Sheldon, 19 14, Ent. 47 : 2 73) ; the authenticity of the locality data has been criticised by Stempffer, 193 1, who however was only aware of the brief mention of sareptensis in the 1917 paper. A pair of specimens has also been reported from Kamchatka by Forster (1936, Mitt. Munchen. Ent. Ges. 26:81, slide 418, male genit.) and this might seem fairly plausible had not Forster's work been full of the most preposterous blunder^.^ melissa melissa Edw.
Although different shades of underside coloration can be racially perceived, the intergradation is so complete and geo- graphically so intricate that I do not hesitate to group all such specimens which only differ in the shade of fawn, from brownish fawn through greyish to almost white, under melissa melissa. I have series of this from nineteen stations in Colorado, eleven in California, six in Utah, five each in Idaho, Montana and Manitoba) four each in Washington and British Columbia! two each in Nevada and Wyoming) and from single localities in Saskatchewan, Alberta, Oregon) Arizona) Texas and Kansas. My material shows that at four points of its extensive West- ern range melissa produces four striking local races embossed as it were on its rather monotonous morphological texture. These are :
1. A curious Colorado form from Pitkin Co. and Lake Co. which) owing to the narrowness of the underside ornamental band, bears a false resemblance to scudderi. Possibly referred to by Barnes and McDunnough op. cit.: 110. 2. A darkish form with discernible insul~ and a peculiar un- derside: hoary greyish fawn with a generous spread of pale 'Such as assigning an alien Lymides organ (Mitt. Munchner Ent. Ges. 26, slide 493) to Plebejus argus ssp. tanwei Grzser (LC. fig. 27) or confusing Lycena anna Edwards with Thecla anna Druce (LC.: l4l), etc.



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19431 Nearctic Forms of Lycceides 97
greenish-blue dusting from base in secondaries and very large golden-green prseterminal blotches. From Gold Lake and Mam- moth Lake, California. Figured by Comstock, 1927 (Butt. Calif ., PI. 53, Fig. 2 1, melissa female). 3. A showy, rather light lilac blue form with a white under- side, well developed and sometimes quite separate orange lu- nules, and a florid female. From several districts in California ("Bouquet Cn," "Owens Lake," "Tehachapi"; also apparently "Arrowhead," "Olancha," "Lebec"). This race is the "lotis" of authors (Barnes and McDunnough, 1916, op. cit., pi. 11, fig. 12, male; Comstock, 1927, op. cit., pi. 53, fig. 23, 24, male, 25, female; Stempffer, 1933, Bull. Soc. Ent. France 102 : 110). 4. melissa annetta [Mead in litt.] Edwards, 1882 (Papilio 2:4849; Holland, 1898, op. cit.: 266-267, pi. 32, fig. 13, male, 14, female; et 1930, ibid. pi. 66, fig. 16, male). Sparse, weak or obsolescent markings on white ground of underside; pale greyish blue female. In 1943 I travelled to Utah with the ex- press object of obtaining this little known form and found it in fair numbers, though very local, on lupine among firs at 9,000 ft. near Alta in the Wasatch Mts. A full account of its habits will be given later. The male armature is quite similar to that of the typical melissa which occurred at about 6,500 ft., some ten miles nearer to Salt Lake City (with intergrades espe- cially in females cropping up among the annetta population). In some of the annetta, however, there is a slight increase above the melissa average in the H of the otherwise typical melissa organ, and this, together with a scudderi lotis aspect of some of the specimens, tends to diminish the hiatus between melissa and the Wyoming form of scudderi.
The production of such local forms with more or less fluid edges is characteristic of the other species too, but in one re- spect melissa seems to be unique among its American congeners, and, namely, in that it is completely replaced East of the Missis- sippi (from at least Southern N. Carolina to at least Ontario) by a remarkably constant form which might serve as an example of how a really good subspecies ought to behave. It is the best known Lycceides in America, but lacks a name. Lycaeides melissa subsp. samuelis nom. nov. (scudlderi Edwards, Scudder, 1889, Butt. N. Engl. 3, pi. 6, fig. 6, male, pi. 34, fig. 29, male genit., non scudderi Edw.;



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98 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
Holland, 1898, Butt. Book, pi. 30, fig. 48, male, fig. 49, female, et 1930, op. cit. pi. 66, fig. 12, male,' non scudderi Edwards, nec "type"; melissa Edwards, Chapman, 1917 in Oberthur, Et. Lep. Comp. 14, pi. 9, fig. 26, male, genit.; et 19 18, Ent. Rec. 3O:4).
Distinguished from all melissa forms by the following com- bination of characters: ampler (cubitoid) termen, especially noticeable in female. Upperside: optical scaling producing a duller violet effect in both sexes. Fulvous arches in female generally restricted to the secondaries and to the strong inter- spaces. Underside : colder tone of greyish fawn coloration which produces, in spite of the pronounced halos around the well- pigmented extradiscal spots, a uniform effect (recalling certain palearctic Plebejus species), this effect being due both to the broader wing space and to a peculiar reduction of the white arches which form mere rims to the thin fuscous arches (this distinguishes it also from scudderi) ; narrowness of subterminal ornamentation in contrast to spacious disc; spot in Cui gen- erally placed in a more distad advanced position due presum- ably to cubitoid wing shape, and thus not forming with the dis- coidal and the Cu2+ (Ai) spots a regularly slanting line as it does in most individuals of other melissa forms. en italic ally shows the highest differentiation of the melissa male organ from that of scudderi, in all specimens measured the fraction H/U being even smaller than is usual for most melissa forms (see p. 88).
Male, holotype, labelled "Orig. PI. 6, fig. 6, Butt. N. Engl. Cab. S. H. Scudder, 306," Mus. Comp. 2001. Slide No. 338. Genitalia measurements : F = 0, 5 7mm., H = 0, 3 5mm., U = 0, 44mm. Female, allotype, 1.abelled "Albany N.Y ." ex coll. Scud- der, Mus. Comp. 2001. Paratypes: 5 males, 1 female, "Albany N.Y."; 1 male, 1 female "Centre N.Y."; and 1 female "Canada, Saunders." [London, Ont.], all these ex coll. Scudder, Mus. Comp. Zool.; 2 males, 1 female "Centre N.Y.," 1 female "Detroit, Mich."; 1 male, 1 female "Pa." and 2 males, 1 female "N.Y. State,'' all these in Mus. Comp. Zool.; 22 males, 12 fe- males "Albany N.Y." coll. H. K. Clench; 1 male "Albany, N.Y.," 6 males "Sylvania, Ohio" and two pairs "Toronto, Ont." @Dr. W. R. Sweadner of the Carnegie Museum, where this specimen (coll. Edwards) is preserved, obligingly sent me a replica of the locality wiggle. It reads : "N. York."




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19431 Nearctic Forms of Lycceides 99
coll. Don B. Stallings; four pairs "Albany, N.Y.," two pairs "Karner, N.Y., 1 male "Massach ex coll. Angus" and 2 females "Mass. ex coll Hy. Edwards ["from W. H. Edwards" - W. P. Comstock in Utt.] , Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. ; one pair each "Syl- vania, Ohio," "Ness Lake, Mich." and "Toronto, Ont.j5 coll. T. N. Freeman and one male, two females "Nashua, N. H." coll. W. P. Comstock.




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Volume 50 table of contents