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V. Nabokov.
Notes of Neotropical Plebejinæ (Lycænidæ, Lepidoptera).
Psyche 52:1-61, 1945.

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PSYCHE
VOL. 52 MAR.-JUNE, 1945 Nos. 1-2
NOTES ON NEOTROPICAL PLEBEJINB
(LYCkENIDB, LEPIDOPTERA)
BY V. NABOKOV
Museum of Comparative Zoology
In a recent paper2 I briefly listed the' only Plebejinoe (s.s.) found in the Nearctic region. Subsequently I decided to see whether any true Plebejince occurred in the neotropics besides the three or four species the genitalia of which I had happened to examine before. The results proved so unexpected and in- teresting that it seems worth while to publish the present paper despite its rather superficial and incomplete nature. In order to cover more ground (and, in some cases, owing to the scantiness of the material at hand) only a very small num- ber of specimens (about 120 in all) have been dissected and drawn (after a few Catochrysophios and representatives of other subfamilies had been weeded out by the same method). Some of these figures are appended. All the specimens, except a few supplied with his usual kindness by Mr. W. P. Comstock of the American Museum of Natural History, are preserved in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard. A rather drastic rearrangement of the species and groups was an inevitable consequence of this investigation. Seven new genera have been introduced; two have been revised and re- stricted. In several cases it was found that forms had been assigned by recent authors to the wrong species. Some syno- Published with the aid of a grant from the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College.
1944 [Feb. 19451 Psyche 51; 104-138, where the following errata should be corrected: line 12, p.
105, instead of "hanno Stoll" read "ceraunus Fabricius (nom. spec.)"; line 28, p. 107, instead of the misprint "calliopsis" read "calliopis"; p. Ill, in the sentence beginning "A complete sequence . . ." transpose "palearctic" and "nearctic."




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2 Psyche [March- June
nyrns have been tracked down, others are tentatively suggested but cannot be finally disposed of until the types are examined or neotypes fixed). The brief bibliographical references given are merely intended to indicate the identity of the forms dis- cussed. Beyond the inclusion of some random notes on certain phases of pattern, macroscopical characters are not discussed, and no attempt has been made to revise in this respect the (fortunately rather few) races that have received names. In spite of the work accomplished since 1909, by Tutt and Chapman in England and by Stempffer in France, entomologists in this country employ the term "Plebefind' simply as a eu- phemism for the "Lycosna" of German authors, or blue^,"^ and 'Plebejus7' is used for a number of heterogeneous Nearctic species only one of which (saspioZus Boisduval) belongs struc- turally to the genus of which the Palearctic Plebejzts argus Linnse-us is the type. In a way the initial blunder was Swinhoe's who while correctly giving a subfamilial ending to the group which Tutt7s intuition and Chapman's science had recognized ("tribe" Plebeidi which exactly corresponds to the Plebejk of Stempffer ) as different from other "tribes" (Lea, subfamilies) within the Lyccenidos, failed to live up to the generic diagnoses which he simply copied from Chapman's notes in Tutt and tried to combine genitalic data he had not verified or did not under- stand with the obsolete "naked v. hairy eyes" system (which at Butler's hands had resulted in probably the most ludicrous assembly of species ever concocted, see for example Butler 1900, Entom. 33: 124), so that in the case of several Indian forms which Chapman had not diagnosed, Swinhoe placed intra- generically allied species in different subfamilies and species belonging to different Tuttian "tribes" in the same subfamily. In reality the subfamily Plebejince is extremely well differen- Thus McDunnough uses "Pkbekm" in his "Check List" of Nearctic Lepi- doptera (1938 Mem. S. California Acad. Sci. 15'61, and thus Comstock uses "PIfbejhiK" in his work on Rhopalocera of Porto Rico and the Virgin Islands (1944, in Miner, Scient. Survey P. R. and V. Isls. 12:492), but the two references the latter author appends (Swinhoe 19x0, Lep. Indica 8:10 and Hampson 1918, Novit. 2001. Tring 25:38S) are most misleading: the first, because Syrttarttciis Butler, a Fenus structurally indistinguishable from Leptotes Scudder (which is one of the two genera assigned by Comstock to "Pk!ie.$na: Swinhoc") is placed by Swinhoe in a different subfamily, namely Lawpidim (now known as Cato- chrysofnce), and the second, because Hampson's (perfectly invalid) use of $'Plebejtfs" and "Plebefinai' refers to a section of a different family, namely Erycinidos (now known as Riodimda) .




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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 3
tiated in all its genitalic elements (the sedeagus and its append- ages, the tegumen, cingula, fakes, uncus lobes and valves of the male, and the cervix bursse and vaginal armature of the female) from the Catochrysopince (containing the holotropical Leptotes Scudder and a huge array of palseotropical species in several genera), the Glaucopsychince (containing, among others, the three holarctic genera Glaucopsyche Scudder, Scolitantides Hiibner [to which Phcedrotes Scudder and "Shijimia Matsu- mura" fall as synonyms] and Philotes Scudder), the Everim with the holarctic Everes, the Lyccenopsince with the holarctic Celastrina Tutt ( = Cyaniris Scudder, nec Dalman) , etc. The arrangement proposed in the present paper needs to be prefaced by a few words on taxonomic units. The strictly bio- logical meaning forcibly attached by some modern zoologists to the specific concept has crippled the latter by removing the morphological moment to a secondary or still more negligible position, while employing terms, e.g., "potential interbreeding," that might make sense only if an initial morphological approach were presupposed. What I term species, in my department, can be defined as a phase of evolutional structure, male and female, traversed more or less simultaneously by a number of, conse- quently, more or less similar organisms morphologically shading into each other in various individual or racial ways, interbreed- ing in a given area and separated there from sympatric repre- sentatives of any other such phase by a structural hiatus with absence of interbreeding between the two sets. In other words: 1. any two structurally indistinguishable individuals belong to the same species regardless of biological, physiological, geo- graphical or any other factors; 2. structurally distinguishable sympatric non-interbreeding sets represent different species re- gardless of all other considerations; 3. structurally distinguish- able sympatric individuals belong to the same species when they occur within an interbreeding set; 4. structurally distinguish- able allopatric sets belong to the same species if the hiatus between their structures is completely bridged by intermediate structures in other, not necessarily intermediate, areas; 5. ob- viously allied but structurally distinguishable allopatric sets not linked by such intergrades can be said to belong to different or the same species only by analogy, i.e., by analysing the struc- tural gaps between sympatric species, or individuals possessing the same general type of structure. Conditions 2 and 4 do not



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4 Psyche [March- June
exclude each other and so it may happen that two structurally distinguishable local forms belong to one species allopatrically because they racially intergrade, but at the same time belong to different species sympatrically because in some other region their structural counterparts occur side by side without inter- breeding (this incidentally is the position in Lyceides) . In such cases one should give precedence to the all important sympatric moment and find somewhere in the spirals of racial intergrada- tion a point at which the whole system can be elegantly, in the mathematical sense (for we are dealing with measurable structures), divided into two parts, i.e., two species, using some combination of trinomials to designate this or that interspecific form (e.g., Lycceides scudderi doei Roe trans ad melissa roei Doe). This state of affairs is not a flaw in the concept of "spe- cies" but an indirect result of its dual nature ("structure" plus "reproduction," "male" plus "female" etc.) and should be ac- cepted by the taxonomist with perfect equanimity.l The impact on the eye of a combination of characters in the whole structure or in an element of it, results in the perception of certain structural types. Structures of the same type imply phylogenetic affinities unless it can be proved, as in some cases it is easy to do, that the resemblance is "false" ie., attained by essentially different means. Such false resemblances are ex- tremely rare and the number of characters involved is small, and this is as it should be, since such "convergence" depends upon the mathematics of chance. False dissimilarities also occur (and are also rare), i.e., the striking difference between one type and another is seen, when analysed, to be due to a simple and brief process of evolution in an unusual direction. Unless we believe that certain structural resemblances and dissimilarities are not due to chance or to gross adaptional modifications, but can be classified according to their phylo- genetic sense, all horizontal genera are artificial groupings - of some practical use to collectors (e.g., the convenient lumping of all small blue butterflies with rounded hindwings and dotted undersides in one "genus") but of no scientific value. This brings us to the question as to whether a classification on the 'Subspecies" (on which I hold rather special views which I shall discuss else- where) may be briefly defined as a locally constant phase of specific alar char- acters with or without a local fixation of some stage within the graded variational range of the specific genitalic structure. The days are quite gone when easy-going describers could give names to these things without a detailed study of genitalic and pattern characters throughout the polytypic species or genus involved.



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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 5
basis of genitalia reflects natural relationships better than do other principles. I think the answer is "yes." A "polytypic genus" is determined by structural characters which are common to all the species it includes and the par- ticular combination of which, more than the presence of some particular detail, no matter how striking, distinguishes the group from any other. A "monotypic genus" (i.e., a structurally iso- lated species which does not fit into any known generic group) obviously lacks the first feature while the number of characters entering the distinctive combination is vastly increased by prac- tically coinciding with the whole array of specific characters, so that the only "reality" a monotypic genus has, lies in the im- plication that the only species it contains is the only one 'known" and that if others were "known," a common denomi- nator now "hidden" in the monotypic genus would be revealed. Among polytypic genera, a "natural genus7' is one which reflects the flickering, as it were, of a strongly differentiated type of combinational structure within limits as narrow per se as, say, the range of continuous variation within a structurally highly polytypic species, and thus consists of specific structures re- sembling each other more than they do any other species. If hi, ha, h3, h4 denote the interspecific hiatuses, and Hi, Ha, etc. the intergeneric ones, then the lesser the h's and the larger the H's, the more '(natural" the genus is - and the more liable it is to be transformed into a polytypic species by the next reviser with more material at his disposal.
A certain harmony, as yet rather obscure, seems to exist be- tween a particular type of male armature and a particular fe- male one; this has been taken into account in founding the genera discussed below. The impression I have formed so far that with "natural genera" specific differentiation in these or- gans is more marked (or at least easier to observe) in the male may be due to insufficient investigation, but anyway I cannot find any exact correlation between female lock and male key. In what manner and to what extent the sclerotized parts of the sexes in Plebejince fit each other during copulation is not clear, but I doubt whether the valves, the termination of which is evolutionally the most vulnerable part, come into any direct contact with such structures in the female organ that might lead to some intersexual adaptation.'
'Lorkoviz states (1938, Mitt. Miinchner Ent. Ges. 28:231) in an admirable paper on the European representatives of Everes (Ever&) that in that genus



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6 Psyche [March- June
Adaptation to surroundings, to climate, altitude etc., and hence "natural selection" in its simplest sense, certainly had no direct action whatever on the moulding of the genital armature, and we know nothing of the physiological processes of which that elaborate sculpture is the structural overflow. While ac- cepting evolution as a modal formula, I am not satisfied with any of the hypotheses advanced in regard to the way it works; on the other hand, I am quite certain that repetitions of struc- ture, on the Siberian tundra and on the paramos of the Andes, on a mountain in India and on an island in the Caribbean Sea, cannot be treated as a result of haphazard "convergence" since the number of coincident characters in one element, let alone the coincidence of that coincident number with a set of char- acters in another element, exceeds anything that might be pro- duced by "chance." Hence the conviction that there is some phylogenetic link where there is a recurrence of similar genitalic characters and that certain groupings - the new genera to which we now must turn - may be so devised as to reflect the natural affiliations of the species.
Plebejinae
Stempffer, 193 7-1938, Bull. Soc. ent. France 42: 2 11-2 18, 296-300; Nabokov, 1944, Psyche 51: 104-105; = Plebeiidi, sensu Tutt [et Chapman], 1909, British Butt. 3: 150-159; Chapman, 1910, Ent. Rec. 22: 101-103; 1916 Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1916: 157-180; = "Plebeius + Polyommatus" s. Be- thune Baker, 19 14, Ent. Rec. 26: 164 ; Polyommatince, Forster 1938, Mitt. Munchner ent. Ges. 38: 11 1-1 16. Parachilades n.g .
(fig. 1, figs. TIT, pi. 2,7)
Type and only known species Lyccena titicaca Weymer 1890 (in Reiss et Stubel, Reisen in Sud-America, Lepidoptera : 122- 12 3 "Titicaca Lake ; Sajama, Bolivia," pi. 4, fig. 6 [very poor] ; Itylos [s.l.] titicaca? Draudt, 1921, in Seitz, Macrolep. World, 5 : 122, pi. 144, m [coarse copy of original fig.] ; Cupido speciosa the median uncal projection (a structure not found in Plebejince and wrongly, in my opinion, regarded as being formed by the fusion of the uncus lobes) fits exactly the vaginal plate of the female, both varying together according to the species. See also Chapman 1916, Trans. Ent. Soc. London 1916:170.



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1945 1 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince. 7 Staudinger, 1894, Iris 7 :
77-78? "Huallatani and Quebrada
Malaga, Bolivia"; Lymna speciosa, ibid., pi. 2, fig. 8 8 ; Itylos [s.l.] speciosa, Draudt, 192 1, I.c., pi. 144, n, figs. 8 9 ) . Five males and one female investigated: prep. 610, "Titicaca FIG. 1. Parachilades titicaca, left hindwing underside x7 [Lake] , Bolivia," ex coll. Huntington [ex coll. Staudinger-Bang Haas], Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.; prep. 483, 488, 589, 620, 2 590, "Sicasica, Bolivia, I .X. 1899" ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool. adeagus thickishJ1 about 1 mm. long, the suprazonal portion subequal to the subzonal one. In general type fairly close to In all genera examined the subzonal portion of the asdeagus appears in cross- section as a dorso-ventrad directed oval, the lengthening of which produces the appearance of "thickness" in the organ when the latter is viewed from the side.



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8 Psyche [March-June
Chilades (see pi. 2, CON I), still more curved, however, with a pronounced bulging of the outline (in lateral view) dorsally at the zone (above the zone and less conspicuous in Chilades) and a somewhat different structure of the suprazonal portion. Su- prazonal sheath terminating on the ventral side in a point (which is not notched as it is in Chilades) with two filament-like lateral portions (structurally similar to the spine-like single medial process described by Chapman in other genera and represented in Chilades I) diverging from it and rimming the vesica, the erected (everted) frothy membrane of which they seem to prop. Vesical opening (on the dorsal side) beginning just above the zone (thus at a more proximal point than in Chilades). Vesica very simple and weak as in Chilades, Frey&,'1 Lymides, etc. Alulse considerably more developed than in Chilades, forming two petals almost 0.3 long and resembling (or representing) rudiments of the peculiar element (sagurn) that exists at various degrees of development in several other neotropical genera where, however, it is well differentiated from the aIulse (except in Hemtargus). Furca considerably smaller in relation to the ~edeagus than in Ckilades, singularly thick, pincers-like, con- nected at its tips with the petals of the alulse. The whole dorsum (falx + uncus lobe + tegumen) remarkably similar in type to Chilades, which type is characterised by the breadth of the '
robust and long forearm exceeding that of the long finger-shaped uncns lobe," by the humerulus appearing to be produced (owing to the exiguity of the lobe) not from the base of the lobe but from the teamen proper, and by the latter being smaller by comparison to the fdx and the lobe than in other Piebejince. Differing from Chilades in the greater size of the falx and uncus lobe in relation to the rest of the armature and to the size of the One wonders whether this medial process in ChHades is not, perhaps, merely a lesser stage of development of the pointed part of the sheath of Parachiladn, while the lateral processes in the latter represent a lesser stage of development in comparison to the latero-ventral pointed sheath portions of Chffades. I am not fully satisfied with my observations in regard to the iedeagus of these two genera. 'I fail to find in either of the two species of Freyeria (trochilw and putii') the cornuti mentioned in the case of i-rochik by Stempffer (1937, Bull. Soc. ent. France 42:215).
In fact Fruhstorfer, the only German writing author of his time who made any attempt to follow the British authors in the study of Lycaenid genitalia for systematic purposes, in an enthusiastic, but amateurish, and poorly illustrated paper on Chiladm (1916 2001. Meded. Leiden, 290-95) mistook the uncus lobes of lams and cleotas for an additional pair of fakes (besides confusing generic characters with specific ones).




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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejinae. 9 win& Falx very big, long and thick, fatter than in Chilades, and not distinctly separated to the eye into its components (humerulus, elbow, etc.) owing (1) to its not bunching at the shoulder as it does in Chilades (in ventral view) ; (2) to the
unusual (unique in Plebe jince, typical in Catochrysopinae.) slant in the part that corresponds to the, very upright, forearm of Chilades, with a consequently wide and weak falcal arch; and (3) to its even breadth from basal point to almost three-quarters of its length; thus of a limacine appearance increased by the fact (again unique in this subfamily, but frequent in Catochry- sopinae.) that in ventral view the point of the oblique falx seems twisted away from the lobe instead of curving hookwise toward the latter as it does in Chilades (or other genera) where it at- tains the tip of the lobe. Uncus lobe narrow and long, exceeding the length of the tegumen (from base of falx to beginning of cingula) which is not the case in Chilades nor indeed in any other genus of the subfamily; tapering above the humerulus to form a finger-shaped projection of even breadth throughout; slightly excurved (in contrast to the straight "gothic" projection in Chilades} and at least 1% narrower than the forearm. Valve exceedingly small and squat, about half the aedeagus and about equal to the falx in length, the first proportion only approached in one other species of Plebejinae. (Hemiargus ramon Dognin) and the second unique in the subfamily (but common in other Lycaenids) ; of a peculiar stunted appearance, shaped like an elephant, about one and two-fifths as long as broad, thus strik- ingly different from the elongated shape of Chilades and all Old World members of the subfamily; with a strongly and evenly curved processus superior ending in a thickish gradually tapering rostellum (about a third of the valve in length), which continues the even curve of the whole upper margin and comes to rest upon the well-developed, strongly jutting mentum, the tip of which may assume a fluted appearance in situ. Female: fibula of ostium bursae strongly developed, of the Chilades type, with the upper lamella conspicuously long (about 0.3 mm.). Papillae anales about 0.45 mm. broad and very large in relation to the short looking rods (about 0.6). Measurements (in mm. ) : aedeagus 0.9-1, suprazonal portion 'The titicaca lobe length is only attained in Chilades by one species (cleotas, pi. 2, CLE 3) in which the whole alar surface is 5.4 times greater and the fore- wing 2.5 times longer than in titicaca, while in galba forms (e.g. pi. 2, CON 3)



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10 Psyche
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0.44-0.52 (mean 0.491, subzonal 0.44-0.54 (mean 0.49) ; breadth (in lateral view) at zone 0.16, proximad 0,12 ; penis mean 0.85. Furca 0.37. Falx 0.5 by 0.07 to 0.55 by 0.1 (mean 0.52 by 0.08) ; uncus lobe 0.5 by 0.045 to 0.55 by 0.055 (mean 0.52 by 0.05). Valve 0.54 by 0.39 to 0.55 by 0.4 (mean 0.54 by 0.4).
It is possible that individuals or broods or racially constant forms of titicaca with a complete underside forewing set of (seven) II macules and (seven) split I macules exist somewhere in the Andes. The general tendency, however, is to complete obsolescence (Staudinger selected for his figure of "Lycma speciosa" an individual with still visible I RM and Mill and MJI; Weymer's only fresh specimen had none). The narrow and pointed (almost tineoid) wing-shape is found elsewhere among Plebejiwe of great altitudes (e.g. in a Himalayan form of Albdina orbitulus Prun.). In the hindwing (see fig. I), the termen strongly recedes (below vein Ma) from scale line 85 to SO (at vein 2A). The I macules are obsolescent, except the CUi pr~etennind mark which is distinctly pigmented in some speci- mens. The I1 made is weakly pigmented (except marginally, especially along the outer edge in most specimens) from Sc to cell Ma (between, roughly, scale lines 3040, 35-50, 50-60, 50-60)) fairly strongly (with very strong edges) from Mg to cell Cu 2 (35-60, 30-40, 30-35,) and is very weak in 1A and 2A. The III made is weakly pigmented (except the proximal edge) in Sc (0-20) and fairly strongly (with still stronger edges) in Cua (10-20). The I discoidal RM (30-35) is very weak while the I1 one (R 12-25 +M 5-2 5) is fairly strong (with still stronger edges). All the macules except the anal ones and the Cu, prieterminal mark (60-65) fill the transverse breadth of the interspace (forming, if viewed from the termen a capital omega in the case of the I1 series, and a somewhat similar design in the case of Sc III, II RM, CU; 111) and are squarish, or of ;roughly triangular shape if extending to 15 or more scale lines (along the upper vein of the cell as Sc III and Cui 11 do, or along the lower one as II M and Rg I1 do). I give these scanty notes and a figure, since no intelligible description of the species exists? where dwarfs from Cyprus approach my largest titicaca (length of fore wing 8.5 mrn.) in wing span (though of course the wings remain always much fuller than in Paruchihdes), the lobe is at least twice smaller than in the latter. ' For a full discussion of the terminology employed see my paper (1944 op. rit.) on the pattern of Lycmnidee as expressed in Lywides.



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19451 Notes on Neot~opical Plebejin~ 11
Pseudothecla n.g.
(figs. FAG) PI. 2)
Type and only known species: Thecla faga Dognin 1895, Ann. SOC. ent. Belgique 39: 105-106 "Loja, Ecuador" ( = ? excisicosta Dyar 19 13, Proc. United States Natnl. Mus. 45: 63 7-63 8 "Cotahuasi ; Chuquibamba, Peru") .l One male investigated: prep. 6 1 1, "Peru," ex coll. Hunting- ton, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. (with a somewhat more weakly marked underside than Dognin's description suggests). Bdeagus two-thirds of a millimeter in length) very slightly incurved distally, rather thickset, not unlike certain Plebejus species in type, the suprazonal portion hardly more than half the subzonal one in length, the vesical opening at 0)8 mm. from the zone, the vesica plain, rather weakly defined, thickly shielded ventrally by the suprazonal sheath; alul~ and tabs small. Furca resembling Pa~achilades, the branches still thicker) conspicuously curved, equal in length to the subzonal portion of the zdeagus. Traces of a thin membrane (? rudi- ments of sagum) between the latter and the furca. Falx bear- ing a general resemblance to certain Plebejus and Vacciniina species, its outline, however, more evenly rounded throughout. Forearm slim, incurved, tapering to a sharp point, subequal to the suprazonal portion of the zdeagus) humerulus thickish with a weak shoulder. Uncus lobe small, shorter than the forearm, rather narrow and blunt. Valve of the normal (fishlike) sub- familial shape) but exceedingly small, subequal in length to the zdeagus, about twice as long as broad, nicely tapering basad. Processus superior strongly scooped out at the rostellum which thus seems to be produced from a point lower than the upper margin of the valve and is curiously shaped: anteriorly forming a sharp point, posteriorly producing a kind of small heel at about half of the length of its inner margin. Measurements (in mm,) : zedeagus 0.67, suprazonal portion 0.24, subzonal 0.43 with breadth (lateral view) 0.1 1; penis 0.64. Furca 0.44. Ver tical/Horizontal extension of uncus : fore- arm 0.27/0.033, humerulus 0.07/0.14, shoulder 0.11/0.05) lobe 0.2/0.06.
Valve 0.65 (to tip of rostellum 0.76) with breadth 0.31.
This is a very curious addition to the subfamily. lSylphis Draudt 1921 (in Seitz) Macrolep. World 5: 823, "Cuzco (Peru) ,)' PI.



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12 Psyche
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Pseudoch~ysops n.g.
(figs. BOR, pl. 2,7)
Type) and only known species: Hemiargus bornoi Comstock- Hunt.ington 1943 (Ann. New York Acad, Sci, 45 : 102-104, ''Font Beudet, Haiti,'.' pl. 1, figs. 18 Q , 19 underside; Comstock, 1944, Khopalocera, m Miner, Scient. Survey Porto Rico and Virgin Ms. 12 : 498499, fig. 16 venation), Two male paratypes and me female paratype (all ex coll. Am, Mus, Nat, Hist., Mus. Comp. Zool.) investigated: prep. 496, 604, 9 605) all "Pont Beudet, Haiti, about 100 ft., 3-4- 111-1922 ."
Edeagus dim) elongated, 1 mm. long, suprazonal portion equal to subzonal one; ventral part of subzonal sheath slightly notched distally, acumjnate in lateral view; vesical opening high, about half-way up from the zone, ahlz small, Chapman's process slight, vesica weak, unarmed, the whole organ vaguely in termdate between Chgades and Freyeriu .I Sagurn rudi- mentary, in the form of two weak ill-defined lobes produced from the zone ventrad. Fwca well developed, in length sub- equal to the subzonal portion of the zdeagus, of a canventional subfamilial shape, but with a broad membraneous lining giving it a lobed appearance in situ. Falx and uncus lobe different in type from CModes although related to it in general elongation, much more strongly developed than in Freycria, but otherwise definitely allied to the latter. Foream more than a third of a mm. long, slightly overtopping the uncus lobe, remarkably slender and straight, very gradually tapering to a minutely hooked point, elegantly elbowed, more finely drawn and direct that in Freyeria) similar in these features to Lyc~ides melisxu Edwards, but combined with a differently shaped, compara- tively high shoulder, as in Freywia, only finer in outline. Hu- meradus more than twice shorter (horizontal extension) than forearm (vertical extension 1, remaining evenly slender, and hardly thicker (vertical extension than forearm (horizontal extension), for slightly over half of its length from elbow point, then abruptly expanding to almost double of its vertical exten- sion to form a delicate, small but conspicuous shoulder, its out- 144, n) ought to lx also checked in relation to jaga (#$. cit. : 823424, PI. 144, m). Both are doubtfully piaced by Draudt in Sc~&hnti&$ awl. Freyerh is less dose to Chihdcs than to Lycmides, its nearest ally.



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194.51 Notes on Neotropkal Plebejin~ 13
line convex posteriorly and somewhat concave below its promi- nent anterior point. Uncus lobe very long? thicker and blunter than in Chilades) somewhat related to Plebejus, slightly ex- curved? just above one-half the length of the tegumen proper) twice broader than the forearm and more than five times as long as broad. Valve bearing a false resemblance in shape to ~oluni Tutt (Glaucopsychin~) ; in general proportions likewise resem- bling Pa~achiludes; in character of rostellum somewhat allied to Pseadothecla; in basic structure truly allied to the next genus; very short) at its broadest (very distal) part about three- quarters as broad as long, shorter than the ~deagus? about sixteen times shorter than the length of the forewing (which is about 11 mm.) [the latter ratio being one-eighth in F~eye~ia (about 7 mm.) where) as in all Old World Plebejina? the valve is longer than the zdeagus] ) ~ubtriangular~ strongly expanding from its bluntly rounded base to form a buffalo hump; the process superior abruptly sloping from that point to evenly rise again at a point immediately below whence it projects distad as a slender) very slightly incurved? horn-like rostellum) in length just under one-sixth of the whole process. Stretch be- tween rostellum and mentum extensive and steep, lending the valve a gaping appearance, this effect being due not to any spe- cial feature of mentum or distal margin of valval membrane? but to the rudimentary or aborted (despite the horn-like free end) condition of the upper process which in all other Plebe- jin~ is long enough to allow the rostellum to rest on the menturn.* Female: fibula well developed, about 0.16 long by as much broad) consisting of a triangular portion over an oppositedly directed cordate one. Papillz anales small) about 0.3 broad by 0.2 long with comparatively very long (0.82 ) rods. Measurements (in mm.) : zdeagus 1 ? suprazonal portion 0.5) subzonal 0.5 with breadth (in lateral view) 0.1 1; penis 0.93. Furca 0.47. Sagum 0.33. Vertical/Horizontal extension of un- '1% situ the end of the processus superior of bomoi tends to be infolded, i.e., to overlay the ventral concavity of the valve as occurs also in Parachilades, Chilades, and Hemiargus (s.s.). Another character of these valves (and also that of the next genus) which lack the regular bullula of other genera is the fact that under pressure the whole margin below the rostellum has a trick of bulging (pro- ducing as it were a second mentum), a circumstance which incidentally misled Bethune Baker (1913, Trans. Ent. SOC. London 1913: 201-204) in his rather con- fused attempt to separate what he called phiala Grum Grshimailo (of which he examined, at the best, a locotype or cotype -not the actual type as wrongly stated : 204) from the absolutely conspecific galba Lederer.



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14 Psyche [March-June
cus : forearm O.35/O.O3-O.36/O.UZ 5, humerulus O.O4/O. 17, shoulder O.l/O,O7, lobe 0.36/0.065. Valve 0.63-0.66 with breadth 0.5. Rostellum 0.18.
In pattern characters this rare and remarkable butterfly be- longs, together with a few other genera or aberrant species, to what may be termed the "catochrysopoid" pattern group in Plebejim (some notes on the subject will be found further on and at the end of this paper), none of the members of this group having, however, any structural connection whatever with the Catoch~ysopin~ genitalically . Moreover, the present assign- ment of boynoi and faga to the true Plebejim adds two "tailed" species to the small number (all in ChiZades) already known (first recognized by Chapman 19 16).
Cyclargus n.g.
(figs. DOM, AMN, WOO, TH, PI. 3; AMN) PI. 7) Type: Lyccena ammon Lucas 185 7
Four species known l:
ammon Lucas (Lycmza, 1857, Lkp., in la Sagra, Hist. . . . Cuba 7 : 6 12, "Cuba," pl. 16, figs. 7 8 , a ? , b ; Lyccena filenus Holland [nee Poey] 1931, Butt. book, PI. 68, figs. 2 ? [nee 8 1) 3 ? , 4 8 ; Hemia~gus amnon ammoiv, Comstock-Huntington, 1943, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 45 : 95-96; "Havana, Cuba, winter brood").
dominica Moschler (Lycmza) 1886, Abhandl. Senckenberg, naturforsch. Ges. 14 : 26, "Jamaica," fig. 10 [fide Comstock- Huntington, 1943, op. cit. : 101-1021; Hemiargus ammon f. dominica, Draudt, 192 1, in Seitz 5: 820; Hemiargus dominica, Comstock-Huntington, 1943, 1.c.).
thomasi Clench (Hemia~gus catilina auct. ssp.) 194 1, Mem. SOC. Cubana hist. nat. 15 : 407-408, "Arthur Town, Cat. Isl., Bahamas7'; Hemia~gus bahamensis Clench, 1943, Psyche 49 : 5 7, ((Crooked Isl., Bahamas") comprising thomasi thomasi Clench (Hemia~gus ammon thomasi, Comstock-Huntington, 1943, op. cit. : 97 '(Bahamas"), thomasi bethune baker; Com- stock-Huntington (Hemia~gus ammon ssp., 1943 op. cit. : 97- 99, ((Miami, S. Florida, winter brood,)' pl. 1, fig. 25 8 ; Hemi- aygus catilina Bethune Baker [nee F'abricius] 1916, Ent. News Listed in chronoIogica1 order. The obvious systematic sequence is: dominica, ammon, wood~ufi, thomasi.




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19451 Notes on Neot~opical Plebe jin~ 15 27 : 454; Holland, 1931, 09. cit., pl. 30, fig. 45 9, pl. 31, fig. 3 1 9 ) and thomasi noeli Comstock-Huntington (Hemiaygus ammon ssp., 1943, op. cit. : 99-100, "St. Marc, Haiti" pl. 1, fig. 23 8 ).
w oodyufi Comstock-Huntington (Hemia~gus ammon ssp., 1943, op. cit. : 100-101, "Anegada, Virgin Isls.", pl. 1, fig. 248).
Bdeagus in a very general way allied to Pseudoch~ysops, smaller, stubbier? from just under 0.65 to just over 0.8 long; suprazonal portion about half or just over one-half the subzonal one; ventral side of suprazonal sheath notched distally; vesical opening beginning at about half-way or two-thirds from the zone on dorsal side, at first very narrow, with distinct lateral portions then brusquely allowing the vesica to expand; the latter very plump (facing more or less distad), in lateral view not unlike a pin cushion, in dorsal view resembling a bourbon crown; set with about 12 0-1 60 comparatively large (0.003) cornuti in several regular rows of about ten and more or less distinctly divided by the thin point of Chapman's process; aluh and subzonal portion of the usual type in the subfamily, the former about 0.1 long, the latter compressed laterally, broader in lateral than in ventral or dorsal view. Furca small, slightly shorter than the subzonal portion, more efficiently holding it in the forking than in Old World types. Sagum well developed, consisting of two convex (ventrad) lobes about 0.4 long by 0.2 broad, connected at the zone with the alulze, and below the zone with the points of the furca, converging in front (ie., on the ventral side) of the ~deagus in the manner of a stiffly bulging short waistcoat, too ample as it were for the body it encloses, and edged at and along its margins (which appear distally pro- jected in lateral view and thus differ from other sagum bearing genera to be discussed) with conspicuous teeth reaching 0.03 in length. Uncus, especially fakes, extremely small and weak. Falx allied in type only to one Old World genus? namely Ayicia; in shape resembling a beheaded dromedary, the part of the "neck" being taken by the straight, rather bluntly tapering, plain-tipped vertical projection (forearm) of the falx, and the "hump" being represented by the high evenly shaped vertical shoulder of the medially thickish, straight, rather long hori-



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16 Psyche [March-June
zontal extension (humerulus) of the falx (see pi. 1, fig. 4). Uncus lobe subtriangular in situ, spoon shaped when slightly compressed in flat ventral view, from slightly to one-fifth longer than the falx and hardly two-thirds the length of the lobe of Pseudochrysops bomoi. Valve allied to that of the latter but better developed in the processus superior, thus approaching a more normal (though still very squat) Plebejince shape which it resembles only insofar as a puffer resembles a pike; very small and short, hardly attaining the length of the sedeagus, twice or less than twice as long as broad, heavily humped ; the hollowed outline formed by the menturn (which here seems somewhat upturned in situ) and the (strongly receding here) margin of the body of the valve extending laterally (i.e., subparallel to the long axis of the valve) rather than "vertically" as it does in born& (where the upper process is poorly developed) ; the free part of the upper process (rostellum) throughout its length snugly resting upon and merging with the hollowed margin, but when manipulated seen to be sinuous, flexible looking and long; ending in a more or less broad coxcomb with well developed or greatly developed teeth oriented along the long axis of the valve, longer relatively to it than in other Plebejina (except one pale- arctic species, Plebe@ argus L. where, however, they point obliquely down as in Itylos, sensu mihi), and providing the main characters for distinguishing the four species. Female: fibula resembling P. bornof but shorter (Oil long by as much broad distally and twice broader proximally). Everted henia stumpy and short.' Papillae anales about 0.3 long by 0.3-0.4 broad, with rods 0.7 long, thus shorter (both in relative and absolute size) than in bornoi.
Cyclargus doaiinica Moschler
(figs. DOM, pi. 3)
Two males investigated: prep. 501, "Baron Hill, Jackson Town, 1200 f t., March, leg. L. Perkins," Mus. Comp. Zool., and 508, id., "July," id.
Bdeagus 0.75 long, suprazonal portion shorter by half than =My impression is that the extensibility of the henia and its prop so marked in all PIebej+ta" (see Chapman, 1916 of. cit.) is more limited in Pseudochrysops, Cycmus and HetttWrg'sts (s. mils;) in contrast to the rest of the neotropical genera examined which conform to the Old World type in this respect. I have dissected, however, only a few females and ray results should be checked on more material.




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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebe jhce 17 the subzonal one with a weakly excurved, somewhat slipper- shaped suprazonal sheath, which opens dorsally at about one- third from the zone. Forearm subequal to uncus lobe. Valve twice as long as broad. Comb narrow, with receding edge; 12 to 16 teeth: first and second equal, slightly broader than, but otherwise as long as, the rest which are sharp and subequal inter se except for a perceptible reduction in the last three or four.
Measurements (in mm.) : sedeagus 0.) 5, suprazonal sheath 0.25, subzonal 0.5 with breadth (in lateral view) 0.14; penis 0.65. furca 0.45. sagum 0.45. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus (prep. 501) : forearm 0.22/0.05, humerulus 0.07/0.19, shoulder O.l3/O.O7, lobe 0.23/0.06. Valve 0.55-0.7 with breadth 0.33-0.35; comb: breadth 0,12 ; first and second tooth: length (bisetrix from apex to line prolonging basad the outer edge of third tooth) 0.016 and 0.016.
Cyclargus ammon Lucas
(figs. AMN, pi. 3)
Three males and two females investigated: prep. 507, "Sierra Maestra, East Cuba, 1000 ft., 16-VI-1930, leg. Clorinda Querci," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.; 375, id. "23-VII- 1930" id.; N, id.; ? 530, id., "3-XI-1929, leg. 0. Querci," id.; ? 529, "Cuba, leg. Ch. Wright," Mus. Comp. 2001. Differing from dominica in the following : Valve somewhat broader; comb broader, with circular edge; first and second tooth (equal) one-third longer than in dominica and the rest somewhat broader than in that species.
Measurements (in mm.) : sedeagus 0.63-0.75 ; suprazonal portion 0.23-0.2 5, subzonal 0.4-0.5 with breadth (in lateral view) 0.14; penis mean 0.65. Furca 0.45. Sagum 0.45. Ver- tical/Horizontal extension of uncus : forearm O.l6/O.O2 5- 0.2 2/O.O4, humerulus O.O5/O.l2-O.O8/O.l6, shoulder 0.1/0.05- 0.18/0.06, lobe 0.2 1/0.05-0.24/0.06. Valve 0.6-0.65 with breadth 0.4-0.42 ; comb: breadth 0.15 ; first and second tooth: length (measured as in dominica) 0.028 and 0.028. Cyclargus woodruffi Comstock-Huntington
(figs. woo, pi. 3)
One male investigated : prep. 53 7, "Tortola, Virgin Isls., 2-IV-1925" ex coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mus. Comp. Zool.



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18 L Psyche
[March- June
Differing from the two preceding species in the following: aedeagus (similarly proportioned and shaped) distinctly larger; uncus lobe slightly longer; comb in actual breadth intermediate between dominica and ammon but appearing as broad as in ammon owing to the greater development of first and second teeth, the latter being intermediate in size between dominica and awn, and the former about twice longer than in dominica and about one and one-half times longer than in ammon; the rest of the comb more finely serrated, with a greater number of teeth (2 1) than in the two preceding or in the next species. Measurements (in mm.) : sedeagus 0.83, suprazonal portion 0.28, subzonal 0.55 with breadth (in lateral view) 0.15 ; penis 0.7. Furca 0.42. Sagum 0.43. Vertical/Horizontal extension: forearm 0.2/0.04, humerulus 0.05/0.16, shoulder 0.13/0.06, uncus lobe 0.27/0.06. Valve 0.71 with breadth 0.42; comb 0.15 ; first and second teeth: length (measured as in dominica and ammon) 0.039 and 0.02.
Cyclargus thomasi Clench
(figs. TH, pi. 3)
Nine males and one female investigated (all in Mus. Comp. 2001.) : thomasi thomasi Clench, holotype, prep. 520, "Arthur Town, Cat Isl., Bahamas, 16-VII-1935, leg. W. J. Clench"; paratype, prep. 492, id.; 5 16, 565, "Great Inagua, Bahamas, 11-1934, leg. Armour Exp.; [holotype of "Hemiargus baha- mensis Clench"] 4901 "Crooked Isl., Bahamas, 1-111-1934, id."; thomasi noeli Comstock-Huntington, paratype, prep. 502, "Haiti, leg. P. R. Uhler" ; paratype, prep. 52 1, "San Domingo, Hispaniola" ex coll. Weeks; 2 53 1 "Beata Id., id., 17-1-1932'' leg. Armour Exp. ; thomasi bethune-hake~i, prep. 5 19, "Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 23-VI-1933, leg. M. Bates"; 58 1, "Miami, id., 8-1 5-IX," ex coll. Weeks.
Differing from the three other species in the following: ven- tral outline of suprazonal sheath in lateral view curiously con- cave above the zone and then angled, this being due to a higher (at two-thirds from the zone) and still more distally facing 'This is an aberrative male of ssp. thomasi showing a pretty contrast between the blurred and darkened disc of the underside of both wings and the strongly developed white cretules, while a very luminous scintilla rims and almost engulfs the Cui praeterminal mark. I doubt very much that this can be a subspecifically constant combination of characters on Crooked Isl.



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194s I Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 19 vesical aperture; uncus a shade slighter than in ammon; comb greatly developed: first tooth hypertrophied, four times longer than in dominica, two and a half times longer than in ammon and twice longer than in woodruffi; second tooth about a third of the first (the rest as in ammon with same number of teeth as in that species and dominica).
Measurements (in mm. ) : sedeagus 0.68-0.72, suprazonal sheath 0.22-0.2 7, subzonal 0.45-0.46, with breadth (in lat- eral view) 0,ll; penis mean 0.63. Furca mean 0.38. Sagum mean 0.43. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus : forearm 0.14/0.03-0.17/0.035, humerulus 0,045/0,12-0.06/0.14, shoul- der 0.1/0.05-0.14/0.06, lobe 0.2/0.05-0.2 1/0.06. Valve 0.64- 0.75 with breadth 0.35-0.4; comb; breadth 0.2 ; first and second tooth: length (measured as in the three other species) 0.07 (0.06-0.08) and 0.022 (0.02-0.028).
No subspecific structural distinctions are noticeable and any- way the wing-characters on which the subspecific names have been based must be revised as the comparisons were drawn between non-conspecific forms.
The catochrysopoid wing-characters of the Hemiargus-Echin- aws-Chilades-Cyclaws-Pseudochrysops macroscopical group1 in Plebejinc~ are perhaps most beautifully expressed in the hind- wing underside of Cyclargus. These combinational characters are in this genus: the conspicuously strong pigmentation of macules ScII, ScIII, CuJIIJ2 ZAII, IIM and lateral macule in 4A (placed in corbic arrangement if viewed from base and strik- ingly resembling the African Euchrysops group) and of the Cui, Cua and 1A prseterminal marks (with scintillse) , in contrast to the extreme weakness of all other whole and split macules; (2) the ornamental concentration of an aurora in Cui in contrast to the whiteness of all the other I intervals; (3) the subtrian- gular shape of these intervals and of the faint portions of I macules (both wings) ; (4) the rough quadrate shape of certain macules in the disc (both wings) ; (5) the strong development of halos, cretules and white scales intermixed with the ground The only other Plebejinse having certain catochrysopoid wing-characters (of another type) are: the central Asiatic Agrodicetus elvira Eversmann (which de- parts in an extraordinary way from the pattern of its numerous congeners) and the nearctic alpine Icaricia shasta Edwards (two characters). Absent in ammon ammon as correctly noted by Comstock and Huntington 1943 op. cit. : 96 where, however, there is a clerical error in the notation of the position of the macule in question.




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20 Psyche [March-June
pigment; (6) the halo of I-M partly (posteriorly) fusing with that of MJI.
Hemiargus Hiibner [revised]
(figs. CE, RAM, HA, pi. 4; HAN, CER, pi. 7) 1818, Zutrage Exot. Schmett. 1: 10
Since Papilio hanno Stoll 1790, here found to be a different species from Hesperia ceraunus Fabricius 1793, is not men- tioned in the Zutrage, Scudder's selection (1875, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., Boston 10: 186) and Hemming's confirmation (1934, Gen. names Holarctic Butt. 1: 104) of the type as hanno Stoll cannot stand.
Type: Hemiargus antibubastus Hubner 18 18 ( = Hespena ceraunus Fabricius 1793, subspecies).
Three known species :
ceraunus Fabricius, including ceraunus ceraunus Fabricius (Hesperia ceraunus, 1793, Ent. Syst. 3: 333, "[W. Indies] "; Lampides ceraunus, Butler, 1869, Cat. diurn. Lep. Fabricius: 163, "Jamaica"; Hemiargus hanno ceraunus, Cornstock-Hunt- ington, 1943, Ann. New York Acad. Sci. 45: 107-108), ceraunus antibubastus Hubner (Hemiargus antibubastus, 18 18, I.c., "Georgia"; Lyccena hanno Holland [nec Stoll] 1931, Butt. Book, pi. 32, fig. 3 8 ; Hembgus hanno antibubastus, auct.), ceraunus filenus Poey (Polyommatus filenus, 183 2, Centurie Lkp. Cuba : [4 1-42 1, "Cuba," pi. [ 131, figs. ? 8 ; Hemiargus hanno filenus, auct.), ceraunus gyas Edwards (Lyccena gyas, 187 1, Trans. American Ent. Soc. 3: 2 10-2 11, "Arizona"; Hol- land 193 1 op. cit. pi. 47, figs. 3 8 , 4 8 "typical" ; Hemiargus gyas, McDunnough, 1916, in Barnes-McDunnough, Contrib. Lep. N. America 3: 108-109; Lyccena astragala Wright, 1906, Butt. W. Coast : 232-233, "San Bernardino, California," fig. 401 8 ; Lyccena florencice Clemence, 1914, Ent. News 25: 2 8-29, Huachuca Mts., S. Arizona") and ceraunus zachceina Butler- Druce (Lampides zachceina, 1872, Cistula ent. 1 : 104-105, "Cartago, Costa Rica"; Butler, 1873, Lep. Exot. : 157, pi. 57, fig. 1 [poor1 ) ;
hanno Stoll, including hanno hanno Stoll (PapiZio hanno, *The locality label of the 8 figured by Holland should be checked, as one is never safe with that author. McDunnough (1916 LC.) was the first to point out that gym could not be separated genitalically from untibubastus, and W. Com- stock (1943 : 109) noted that the latter was structurally identical with filenus.



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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejinas, 2 1 1790, in Cramer, suppl. : 170, "Surinam," pi. 39, figs. 2, 2B; Hemiargus hanno hanno, Comstock-Huntington, 1943, op. cit. : 104-106, "Paramaribo, Surinam"), hanno bogotana Draudt (192 1, in Seitz, Macrolep. World 5: 819, "Bogota, Colombia," pi. 144,k) and hanno watsoni Comstock-Huntington (1943, op. cit. : 106-107, "San Juan, Puerto Rico"; pi. 1, fig. 20 8 "Gua- yanilla, Puerto Rico") ;
ramon Dognin (Lyccena, 1887, Naturaliste 9: 189-190, "Loja, Ecuador,'' fig. 4 8 ).
Bdeagus very long in relation to the other parts of the arma- ture, with a neck-like suprazonal portion (as if the correspond- ing part in Cyclargus had been telescoped out). Suprazonal sheath in ventral (I), dorsal (2) and lateral (3) view: (1) slightly expanding at its termination where it is slightly notched, each of the resulting portions being armed with five or six ventro-laterally placed spinules ; (2 ) revealing at more than half-way from the zone a narrow vesical fissure, the rather rough margins of which, just before expanding slightly to form the vesical opening proper (which is as long as the fissure), are somewhat drawn together and produce at this point two surculi, one on each side; (3) rather strongly incurved, with the vesical opening facing more or less distad and appearing still shorter than it is owing to the vesical slit not being seen from this angle, so that the eye mistakes the projection in profile of the paired surculi (directed dorsad and proximad) for the protruding nether "lip" of the 0pening.l Vesica, as seen laterally, pulvi- nate as in Cyclargus, but with smaller cornuti. Alulae hardly, if at all, differentiated from the sagum, which is rudimentary, with no trace of teeth. Furca small, well adjusted to the sedeagus subzonally as in Cyclargus. Falx resembling Cyclargus but somewhat stronger and thicker. Uncus lobe evenly tapering to a blunt point. Valve small, shorter than the sedeagus, approach- ing the Plebejince shape-norm somewhat better than Cyclargus which it resembles only in the shoe-shaped mentum with no trace of a bullula and in the freedom of the rostellum; the latter, however, lacking any serration, with a bluntly tapering Moreover, from a certain angle, and especially in hanno, these surculi are easily mistaken by the eye for modified alulse that would have been carried away from the zone by the generic distal extension of the asdeagus.



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22 Psyche [March-June
tip, and somewhat resembling in curvature (especially in the genotype) the kind of rostellum obtained among Old World genera only in Chilades galba Lederer (sensu mihi, i.e. includ- ing Eastern Mediterranean, Caspian, Arabian and Indian forms considered by authors as being distinct species, i.e. galba Le- derer, phiala Grum Grshmailo, ella Butler and contracts Butler) and by an aberrant Albulina (auct.) species, felicis Oberthur, of the southern part of the Central Palsearctic region, in which species, however, the tip is toothed.
Female: henia shortish and curiously thick (with apparently reduced extensibility as in Cyclargus and thus unlike Chilades), strongly chitinized dorsally. Fibula resembling Chilades, pistol- shaped in profile (pointing distad), in ventral view seen to consist of a lamellate ventral piece and a horseshoe-shaped dorsal one.
Hemiargus ceraunus Fabricius
(figs. CE, pi. 4; CER, pi. 7)
Twenty-eight males and one female (all in the Mus. Comp. Zool. coll.) investigated: ceraunus ceraunus Fabricius, prep. 5 70 and 5 7 1, "Kingston, Jamaica, 6-XII-18 7 1 " ex coll. Scud- der; ceraunus ceraunus prox., prep. 499, "Ennery, Haiti, near 1,000 ft. alt., 16-VIII-1934, leg. M. Bates"; prep. 567, "Port au Prince, Haiti, up to 2,000 ft. alt., 2-IX-1934, leg. M. Bates"; and prep. 566 "Navassa Is., W. Indies, XII-1929, leg. W. J. Clench"; ceraunus antibubastus Hiibner, prep. 5 2 5, "Egmont, Florida, 23-IV-1904," ex coll. Fall; prep. 580, "Florida," ex coll. Weeks, and prep. 582 9 , "Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 10-VII- 1933, leg. M. Bates," prep. 339, "Valdosta, Georgia, 9-X-1943, lee,. V. Nabokov"; and prep. 579, "So. Abington, Massachu- setts, V-1880, leg. J. E. Bates" ex coll. Weeks; ceraunus filenus Poey, prep. 374, 497, 506, 5 15, and 561, "Sierra Maestra, E. Cuba, 1,000 ft. alt. . . . leg. 0. Querci," ex coll. Weeks, taken "3 1-XI-192 9," "29-V-1930," "2 2-VII-1930," "10-XI-192 9" and "2 5-V-1930" respectively (individual 5 15 with unusually strong macules of series I1 underside) ; prep. 562, "Vinales, P. del Rio, Cuba, leg. L. de Jaume"; and prep. 563, "Central Soledad, Cuba, 2 7-VIII-1932, leg. B. B. Leavitt" ; ceraunus gyas Edwards, prep. 523, "Baboquavaria Mts., Pima Co., Ari- zona, 15-30-VII-1903, leg. 0. C. Poling," and prep. 574, "Cochise Co., Arizona," ex coll. Weeks; ceraunus gyas prox.,



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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 23 prep. 400 and 524, "San Diego, California, 14-VIII-1908, leg. Geo. H. Field," ex coll. Fall; ceraunus zachceina Butler, prep. 513, "Punto Araras, Costa Rica, 11-XI-1871," ex coll. Scud- der; prep. 510, "Acahuato, Michoacan, Mexico, 3,000 ft. alt., on Coda, 19-VIII-1941, leg. R. Haag," and prep. 509, 572, and 613, "Apatzingan, Michoacan, Mexico, 1,200 ft. alt., moist jungle La Majada, at mud, 8-VIII-1941, leg. R. Haag"; other ceraunus forms: prep. 564, "Clarencetown, Long Is., Bahamas, 11-1934, leg. Armour Exp."; prep. 504 "Vancouver Is." ex coll. Paine; prep. 575, "Colombia," ex coll. Paine. Suprazonal portion of sedeagus in lateral view somewhat bot tle-necked before the slight vesical expansion ; longer than the subzonal portion; with five conspicuous spinules on each side: the first (counting proximad), at about 0.05 from tip (thus on the level of the apex of the ventral notch), 0.008 long, the next, immediately beneath, 0,O 18 (maximum), the third and fourth both 0,022 (max.), likewise placed together, at about 0.015 proximad from second and about the same distad from the fifth which is subequal to the latter. Vesical opening plus fissure somewhat less than half the suprazonal sheath. Surculi forming in profile a small sharp projection about 0.025 long. Furca about a fourth of the aedeagus, connected with the uneven but not actually serrated flaps of the indistinctly two- lobed sagum which rather loosely hangs from the zone ventrad. Falx with a thick blunt forearm and a high shoulder about half the forearm in height. Valve slightly shorter than the aedeagus, about twice as long as broad, resembling a Chilades valve in miniature but with a somewhat sharper mentum. Rostellum more or less distinctly angled about half-way down, with a plain, in some specimens slightly upturned tip (as in Chilades galba) descending in front of the mentum. Female: ventral piece of fibula 0.13 long by 0.2 broad. Pa- pillae anales 0.35 by 0.3. Rods 0.75.
Measurements (in mm.) : aedeagus 0.8-1.0, suprazonal por- tion 0.5 1-0.56 (mean O.54), subzonal portion 0.30-0.44 (mean 0.40) with mean breadth 0.09 (in lateral view) ; penis mean 0.80; furca mean 0.24; sagum mean 0.3. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus : forearm 0.2 3/0.045-0.3/0.06 (mean 0.27/0.05), humerulus mean 0.075/0.15, shoulder mean 0.1 S/O.O9, lobe 0.2 7/0.05 = 0.33/0.07 (mean 0.30/0.06). Valve: 0.65-0.80 (mean 0.74) with breadth 0.2 5-0.47 (mean 0.33).



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24 Psyche [March- June
The length of the suprazonal portion is very steady at just above 0.5; the subzonal one is more variable; it reaches 0.44 in most individuals from Jamaica and Mexico, as well as in one Californian specimen and in the only Colombian one. The falx and uncus lobe reach their maximum in one specimen from Cuba (Vinales) as well as in those from Florida and in the very large (length of forewing 13.2 mm.) specimen from Vancouver Is- 1and.l The valve is rather variable in size, as well as in the length/breadth ratio. The narrowest come from Jamaica, Cuba, and the S. E. States, the broadest from Haiti and Mexico (to- gether with average individuals). The curious bloated appear- ance of some of the shorter Central American specimens (see pi. 4, CE. Mex., CE.C.R.) is due to the lower margin being strongly convex and there is also a certain fattening of the rostellum.
In result of the separation of ceraunus from hanno (see next species) a revision of the wing-characters of several races will be necessary, either because they have been described as sepa- rate species or because authors assigned them to the wrong species and thus did not compare them to the typical race of the right one. Incidentally, attention should be drawn to the fact that the retention of strong pigment not only in the Cul prse- terminal mark but also in the Ms one is a phenomenon that occurs, completely and incompletely, racially and individually, both in ceraunus and hanno (besides being typical in ramon), and no subspecies can be based on this character alone, since it can be developed in two different races of the same or different species.
Hemiargus hanno St011
(figs. HA, pi. 4; HAN, pi. 7)
Material: sixteen males and one female (all in the Mus. Comp. 2001. coll., except prep. 601), as follows: hanno hanno Stoll, neotype, prep. 601, "Paramaribo, Surinam, 18-IV-192 7," ex coll. Cornell Univ., Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. ; hanno hanno prox., prep. 576, "Rio, Brazil, 1-1875"; prep. 577 "S5o Paulo, Brazil, 'The occurrence of this species anywhere north of Arizona or the Carolinas (and even there the colonies would probably die out if not regularly replenished by the offspring of new arrivals) is due to direct spring immigration from the south in suitable seasons, which in its turn produces a more or less nomadic summer generation or generations. The same refers to isola.



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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 25 V, leg. Bruno Pohl" and prep. 532, 9 , same; hanno bogotana Draudt, prep. 602, "Cota, n. Bogota, Colombia, 2,600 m. alt., 28-VIII-1938, leg. T. Hallinan" ex coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.; hanno watsoni Comstock-Huntington, paratype, prep. 569, "San Juan, Puerto Rico, 11-14-11-1914"; other hanno forms: prep, 537a, "Suapura, Venezuela, 2 7-VI-1899" ex coll. Weeks (strikingly resembling on the underside a specimen of Chilades galba Lederer from Daghestan, Russia); prep. 615, "Cari- puto, Venezuela, 23-111-1942," ex coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.; prep. 5 17, "Chulamani, Bolivia, 28-XI-1898" ex coll. Weeks; prep. 5 18, "Coroico, Bolivia, V-1899," ex coll. Weeks; prep. 600, "El Volcan Chiriqui, Panama, 3-111-1936, leg. I?. E. Lutz," ex coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.; prep. 512, "Taboga Is., Panama, 3-1-1935, leg. M. Bates"; prep. 5 11, "Barro Colorado, Panama, 2-11, kg. M. Bates" (strongly pigmented, with broad vadum occupying 20 scale lines in forewing) ; prep. 568, "Marti- nique"; prep. 498, "La Vista and vie., La Selle Range, Haiti, 5-7,000 ft. alt., 16-23-IX-1934, leg. M. Bates" (with a MS note by Mr. Harry Clench questioning its belonging to "hanno" filenus) . p
Differing from ceraunus as follows : sedeagus shorter ; supra- zonal portion shorter in relation to subzonal; both slightly thicker ; suprazonal tapering more distinctly; broadening more strongly at vesical part; spinules smaller, even the median ones hardly reaching 0.007; surculi much more developed, reaching 0.06 in length; of a quite different shape, ie., strongly incurved, both quite distinct in profile; sagum consisting of a single short, leaf-like, incurved lobe of a rather thick texture, apparently formed by a fusion of the alulae; falx and uncus lobe smaller; forearm somewhat more tapering; elbow rounder ; shoulder considerably weaker (smaller, lower, rounder) ; valve smaller; rostellum longer (up to 0.5 long); different in shape -thin- ner, tentacle-like, sinuous, more or less strongly and evenly arched, without any break in its curve; mentum more promi- nent, shoe-shaped; lower margin of valve (processus inferior) very curiously chiselled: abruptly broadening (basad from mentum) midway, almost at right angles to the length of the valve, thus forming a kind of keel, its steep distal edge reaching a "vertical" length of 0,08 in some specimens. Female: ventral lamella of fibula shorter (0.1) and broader (0.3) than in ceraunus.




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2 6 Psyche [March-June
Measurements (in mm.) : sedeagus 0.70-0.95, suprazonal portion 0.36-0.52 (mean OM), subzonal portion 0.3446 (mean 0.401, with mean breadth 0.1 1 (in lateral view), penis mean 0.73 ; furca mean 0.19 ; sagum mean 0.2 7. Vertical/Hori- zontal extension of uncus: forearm 0.15/0.022 to 0.24/0.043 (mean 0.2/0.035 ), humerulus mean O.W/O. 12, shoulder mean O.l/O.O6, lobe 0,19/0.045-0.2 6/O.O6 (mean 0.24/0.05). Valve: 0.53-0.68 (mean 0.6) with breadth 0.24-0.36 (mean 0.3). The length of the suprazonal portion of the adeagus is very constantly around 0.5 in most of the sixteen males measured, gradually reaching 0.52 in a large Bolivian specimen (prep. 517) and in the Bogota one, but abruptly falling to 0.4 in the Cariputo specimen and to 0.36 in the (small) Martinique one. In the latter the suprazonal portion is shorter than the subzonal one (0,46), a ratio not met with in any other specimen; it would be interesting to see whether this applies to a special Martinique race, or is merely the result of irregular dwarfing in this par- ticular individual. The subzonal portion is fairly constant at around 0.39, reaching 0.46 only in the above mentioned speci- men and in the Surinam one, and falling to 0.3 in the Cariputo individual. The length of the forearm remains steadily at 0,2 1 in the majority of the specimens, rising to 0.22 in two (Surinam and Puerto Rico) and to 0.24 in one, but falling to 0.15 in the Cariputo specimen (where the whole armature is greatly re- duced in size) and to 0.19 in a dwarf measuring 7 mm. from base of Cu to end of MI of forewing (Bolivia, prep. 518) as well as in another (smallish) individual from So Paulo. For the horizontal extension of the humerulus and for the height of the uncus lobe, 0.12 and 0.24, respectively, are the most frequently met measurements, with the humerulus steadier than the lobe which is much more sensitive in its reaction to the vertical growth or dwarfing of the forearm. The valve reaches 0.68 in my only Haitian specimen, but otherwise is very constant at close to 0.6, dwindling to 0.58, 0.56, and 0.53 in the small specimens from Martinique, Taboga, and Coroico. Hemiargus ramon Dognin
(figs. RAM, pi. 4)
Two males investigated (both in Mus. Comp. ZooI.): prep. , 573, "Quayaquil, Ecuador, V-1924," ex coll. Weeks, and prep. 616, "San Rafael, Ecuador, VII-1919, leg. E. W. Rarer."



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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 2 7 Suprazonal portion of sedeagus of the ceraunus type but con- siderably longer,l asparagus-like, of even breadth throughout after tapering at about one third from zone. Point of surculi in profile of the ceraunus type but still smaller (hardly 0.01). Ventral spinules very minute (less than 0.005). Sagum as in hanno. Falx of the hanno type but larger, heavier, with the shoulder still less pronounced. Valve of the hanno type, with deeply but rather roundly carved out lower margin and a some- what straighter, slightly thicker rostellum. Measurements : sedeagus 1.2 2-1.24, suprazonal portion 0.75, subzonal 0.47-0.49 with breadth 0.1-0.14 ; penis 1.05-1.1. Furca 0.23. Sagum lobe 0.2 1 with breadth 0.1. Vertical/Hori- zontal extension of uncus : forearm 0.2 5/0.05 5-0.2 9/O.O6, humerulus 0.065/0.15-0.08/0.15, shoulder 0.1/0.07, lobe 0.2 1/0.07-0.23/0.06. Valve 0.62-0.65 with breadth 0.34-0.35. Echinargus n.g.
(figs. ISO, N.SP, pi. 5, 7; n.sp., pi. 8) Type: Lyccena isola Reakirt 1866.
Two species known, one unnamed:
isola Reakirt (Lyccena, 1866, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila- delphia 1866: 33 2, "Vera Cruz, Mexico"; Hemiargus isola, Bethune-Baker, 1916, Ent. News 27:450) ; and a new species2 from Trinidad, British W. Indies. Bdeagus shorter and weaker than in Hemkgus, intermediate in shape between Herniargus (hanno) and Cyclargus; much plainer in structure, however, than in either, with very minute cornuti on the similarly shaped vesica. Suprazonal sheath shorter than the subzonal one, weakly notched ventrally, acuminate laterally, with high, rather distad facing vesical 'This is the longest aedeagus in Plebejina except Aricia isaurica Staudinger which is subequal, and Icaricia icarioides Boisduval which attains the enormous length of 1.75. Incidentally, in Chapman 1916, I.c., the former species (pi. 29, fig. 2, asdeagus) is wrongly figured as Albulina pheretes auct. (orbitulus Prunner) and vice versa (pi. 30, fig. 4, aedeagus). Shortly after recognizing this as an undescribed species by studying the Thaxter pair (see below), I learnt from Mr. W. P. Comstock that he knew it already from specimens (one of which he gifted to this Museum) taken on the same island by Mr. E. I. Huntington, and was about to publish it. I refrain from using Comstock's MS. name so as not to interfere with his priority in case my paper appears before his.




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28 Psyche [March-June
opening and small alulse at the zone. Furca larger or much larger than in Hemiargus. Sagurn considerably more developed (and reaching in isoh its maximum for the whole subfamiiy), consisting of two, ventrally scooped out or fully formed lobes aproning the sedeagus and armed with a set of teeth along the distal part or the whole of the margin. Forearm of falx very slightly curved and sharper than the straight blunt forearm of CycZargv.~ or Hemiargus, with a higher and more conical shoul- der. Uncus lobe as in Hemiwgm but slightly more excurved and tending to a hatchet shape under pressure. Valve of a nor- mal subfamilial (fish-like) shape, allied to the lajus section in Chilades, with a tapering rostellum of the Hemtdrg~ts ceraunus type but differing from those genera by the presence of a bullula which is typical for holarctic Plebe+ (and also exists in the next three neotropical genera to be discussed). Female: henia long and comparatively thin, thus again differing from Hemi- argm in a normal "Old-World" direction.
Echinargus isola Reakert
(figs. ISO, pi. 5, 7)
Seven males and one female investigated: Prep. 540, "Tancitaro, Michoachan, Mexico, 6,000 ft., on fceces, 10-VII-1941, leg. R. Haag: 539 (forma "nyagwa Bois- duval") id.; 478, "Round Mt., Texas, X-1930,'' ex coll. Fall; 587, "Dallas, Texas, leg. Boll"; 500, 526, 534, "Texas"; 538, "Half Way House, Pike's Peak, Colorado, 9,000-10,000 ft., 16-18 VII-1902," ex coll. Weeks (? ssp. alee Edwards; see Field 1941, Kans. Univ, Sci. Bull. 26:347). Zdeagus very poorly chitinised, very anemic looking when teased out of the prodigious structure of the sagurn; just over two thirds of a mm. long, the suprazonal portion less than one third of the subzooal one with the vesical opening at two thirds from the zone. Furca extremely long/ almost reaching one mm. =This is the only species of the nineteen discussed here that already had been (briefly) described genitalicaUy: namely, Bethune Baker 1916, LC.$ refers to "a large toothed hood . . , [which] has its origin just above the very short furca!' Evidently the greater part of the very long iurca was screened from the observer by other parts of the armature. In this connection it should be noted that during the time the armatures are studied they should be kept in vials and it mounted at ail (subsequently) the parts should be well separated, with the &sum placed in ventral view. A slide of the whole armature in lateral view (or a photograph of such a preparation) is utterly useless.



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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 29 and thus of a very holarctic aspect. Sagum hugely developed, consisting of two convex lobes, in ventral view resembling the parietal bones of a skull; about twice as long as broad, only slightly shorter than the prongs of the flexible furca embracing them: thus twice longer than the subzonal portion of the sede- agus which they envelop from the zone down, their strongly serrated edges meeting in front (e.g. ventrally) of the sedeagus and of an imaginary line prolonging it proximad; these teeth of uneven length but on the whole increasing in size proximad; up to 45 teeth along each margin, the first three or four (at the most distal point where the edges begin to meet) about 0.012 long, then ranging (in the same specimen) from 0.02 to 0.04 (and to 0.055 in some specimens) in an unequal sequence; finally reaching 0.1 at the proximal ends of the parting margins where they become clawlike, with clusters of additional spines on the prsemarginal surface of the lobes. Shoulder of falx al- most as high as the forearm which is about one third of the sedeagus. Valve twice longer than the sedeagus and more than three times as long as broad itself with a long tapering tail, a rather week hump, a small mentum and a curved rather than bent, thickish, gradually tapering rostellum about 0,2 long. Female: hema beautifully developed with its distal half (about 0,6) strongly plated; fibula engulfed as it were in this chitinisation.
Measurements (in mm.) : sedeagus 0.6-0.7 (mean 0.69), su- prazonal portion 0.15-0.2 (mean 0.18), subzonal 0.45-0.52 (mean 0.49) with breadth (in lateral view) 0.08-0.09; penis mean 0.62. Furca mean 0.9. Sagum 0.85-0.96 (mean 0.93) with breadth 0.41-0.44 (mean 0.42). Vertical/Horizontal ex- tension of uncus: forearm 0.2/0.03-0.22/0.035, humerulus O.O55/O. l3-0.065/0.14, shoulder 0.18/0.05 ; lobe 0.2 510.08. Valve 1.28-1.3 1, with breadth 0.33-0.39. Echinargus n.sp.
(figs. N.SP, pi. 5, 7, 8)
Two males and one female investigated: prep. 5 78, 'Tort of Spain, Trinidad, XII-19 12-V-19 13, leg. R. Thaxter," Mus. Comp. Zool.; female, prep. 597 id.; prep. 614, "Chancellor Rd., Port of Spain, Trinidad, 2 1-3 1-111-192 9, leg. E. I. Hunting- ton," ex coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mus. Comp. 2001. Bdeagus just over half a mm. in length, the suprazonal por-



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30 Psyche [March- June
tion about three fifths of the subzonal one, vesical opening at about two thirds from zone on the ventral side. Furca longer than the subzonal portion of the sedeagus and very thin. Sagum very remarkable: showing a transitional stage of development between Hemiargus ceraunus and Echina~us isola; each of its twin parts produced ventrad from the zone and embraced by the furca, in shape roughly resembling a high-shouldered falx the forearm of which (copied by the jutting lower portion of each lobe) would terminate in a process resembling a valval comb. For purposes of measurement this peculiar fig-leaf type of sagum may be imagined in the case of each lobe as a roughly equilateral triangle ZPD.l (where Z is the prsezonal point, P the base of the penis and D the dentate end of each sagum lobe) with ZP (along the sedeagus) and PD (at an angle away from the aedeagus ventrad) and the imaginary line ZD connecting these points (and in position coinciding with the "filled out'' ventral margin of each lobe in isola) each about 0.3-0.35 long. Actually a large portion (shaped rather like the falcal arch in high-shouldered falces) is left unfilled in the triangle ZPD so that each sagum lobe consists of an upper portion dorsally curving along the sedeagus, ventrally sinuous with a bulge in its outline, and roughly 0.35 long by 0.15 broad at that bulge, and of a lower portion, jutting in a ventral direction, 0.35 long along its straight basal side, 0.3 along its sinuous and oblique opposite margin and 0.04 broad at the beginning of its free part, then widening to 0.1, and at the very end narrowing again to form a spur 0.05 broad with four teeth 0.01 long. Falx and uncus lobe covered by the generic description and the measure- ments given below. Valve small but at least a fifth longer than the asdeagus, elongated, slightly more than twice as long as broad, with Bayard's angulation well pronounced. Rostellum bent towards the mentum, thin, tapering, about 0.11 long. Female : henia extruding (semi-exerted) to a length of 0.2 5 by 0.12 broad medially in lateral view. Fibula consisting of two lamellate portions one longer by 0.04 than the other which is 0.1 7 long by 0.12 broad, of a suboval shape. Papillae anales about 0.33 long by 0.42 broad, with rods 0.7 long. Measurements (in mm. ) : asdeagus 0.5 6-0.5 8, suprazonal por- tion 0.2-0.2 1, subzonal 0.36-0.37 with breadth 0.1 ; penis 0.5. Furca 0.42-0.43. Sagum 0.3 5 (see description). Vertical/Hori- Which following the falcal simile would coincide with BHF (see pi. 1).



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1945 I Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 3 1 zontal extension of uncus: forearm O.l8/O.O3S-O.l8/O.O45, hu- merulus O.O4/O. 12-0.045/0.14, shoulder 0.11/0.065-0.11/0.07, lobe 0.2 1/0.05. Valve 0.7 by 0.29-0.31 broad. Rostellum 0.1 1. Mar characters, underside, 9 , (see plate 8) : 0-1 50: number of concentric scale lines with common center for both wings (as also in Cyclargus). Veins ending at following lines: forewing Sc16.5, Ri185, R21 100, Ral 120, R4
Cud 137, Cu2! 128, 1All24, 2A
140, Mil 145, Md 145, Msl 143,
118, hindwing Scl78, R,l94,
M1[108, M21 110, M31110, Cu1llO8, Cu2! 100, 1AI94, 2AI8.5, 4Al40. The evenly rounded stretch of termen 94-108-110- 110-108-100-94 is a rare character in Plebejince. (also found in Cyclargus) .
The following markings are represented : forewing, fairly broad terminal line, split macule I (with inner and outer cretules and uncolored interval) in cells R4 to lA, lateral maciile in Ra, macule I1 (with broad halo) in R4 to lA, I discoidal R+M (with broad halo). Example of disposition (on interneural fold) ; in Cul : terminal line 133-136; outer cretule 12 7-133 ; prseterminal mark (outer part of split macule I) 123-12 7 ; in- terval 11 6-123 ; semimacule (inner part of split macule I) 11 1- 116; crescentic inner cretule 104-1 11 (thus the whole system of macule I extends from 104 to 133); outer part of halo of macule I1 88-94; macule I1 81-88 ; inner part of halo of macule I1 76-8 1 (thus the whole system of macule I1 76-94). Hind- wing, fairly broad terminal line, split macule I (with crescentic inner and outer cretules; interval uncolored except in Cul) in cells Sc to 2A, poorly pigmented except the prseterminal mark in Cul; made I1 in same cells, macule I11 in Sc and Cu2; I R+M and I1 M; lateral macule in 4A. Observations: prse- terminal marks in hindwing from Sc increasing tornad and to- gether with the intervals tending to a triangular (basad pointed) shape, especially in M2, M3, weakly pigmented; then in Cui greatly developed (2 0 scale lines), round, strongly pigmented ("black") with a distally placed band-like scintilla consist- ing of 52 scales and about a fifth the mark in extension (prox- imo distad), and a narrow crescentic interval faintly flushed with the auroral element; then in Cu2 to 2A mark roundish, but small, decreasing tornad, weakly pigmented. Other cato- chrysopoid features, shared with Cyclargus and Hemiargus, can be easily seen from the figure.




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32 Psyche
[March- June
Pseudolucia n.g.
(figs. CHI, COL, pi. 5)
Type : Lyccena chilensis Blanchard 1852. Two species known:
chilensis Blanchard (Lyccena, 1852, in Gay, Hist. Chile, 2001. 7:37-38, "Coquimbo, Chile," pi. 3, figs. 4a 8 , b; Scolitantides chilensis, Butler, 188 1, Trans. Ent. Soc. 1881 :467 ; PLyccena endymion Blanchard, 1852 ibid.:37 "Coquimbo, Chile," pi. 3, fig. 3a 8 , b; Polyommatus atahualpa Wallengren, 1860, Wien. ent. Monatschr. 4:3 7, "Valparaiso, Chile"). collina Philippi (Lyccena, 1860, Linn. Ent. 14:2 70-2 7 1 "San- tiago, Chile"; Scolitantides cullha, Butler, 188 1 1.c. ; Lyccena lyrnessa Hewitson, 1874, Ent. Month. Mag. 11: 107 "Chile"). Bdeagus thick-set, with strong fat tabs and alulse, the latter very homogeneous with the subzonal sheath, sepaloid, arched and raised (as in several suprazonally short palsearctic genera e.g. Agrodicetus) , the zone dipping medially (ventrally slightly more so than dorsally) and coinciding with the beginning of the vesical opening on the dorsal side. Suprazonal portion, as meas- ured from that medial point ventrally, extremely short, about one third the length of the subzonal one (and still shorter if measured from the apices of the "shrugged" alulse) , thus shorter than in any other species restricted to the New World. The short shield of the (ventral) suprazonal sheath deltoid in ven- tral aspect, acuminate in lateral view and quite straight i.e. lack- ing the slight excurvation noticeable in Hemkgus, Cyclargus etc.; exceeding in length the plain unarmed vesical tip of the penis (which seems sunken between the alulse). Subzonal sheath thickly lining the penis, curiously shagreened ventrally. Furca strongly developed, its tips connected with the sagum. The latter in shape and position of the Echinargus isola type, but considerably smaller (in relation to the sedeagus), its two lobes reaching from the level of the alulae (to which they are Rechristened "sibylla" by Kirby (1871, Cat. Diurn. Lepid.: 377) who wrongly thought BIanchardls name clashed with Papilio endymion [Schiffl = Meleageria meleager Esper.
The genus Scolitantides Hiibner, of which orion Pallas is the type, belongs to the Glaucopsychince, By an amusing coincidence Butler placed almost correctly in that genus the species plumbea described ibid.



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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 33 attached) to the level of the base of the penis proper and almost as broad as long; meeting in front (i.e. ventrally) of the gede- agus at about one third of the subzonal portion from the zone, overlapping for a short stretch, then parting again; these front edges coarsely serrated, and the whole prsemarginal portion of each lobe strengthened ventrally by an additional sharply lo- calized granulation of the chitinous surface (similar to the shagreened ventrum of the sedeagus as seen in the V-shaped anterior parting of the lobes), a character not found elsewhere in the subfamily. Uncus small, resembling Pseudothecla and also the unique plebejinoid uncus of the holotropical Zhula gaika Trimen (Lyccena cyna Edwards) in Brephidince. Falx still more curved than in Echinargus, differing from Hemiargus as a beckoning index does from a warning one; the whole out- line from point of forearm to base of humerulus evenly rounded, with a gently sloping shoulder, thus quite different from the "~ameloid'~ fakes of the three preceding genera. Uncus lobe still more tending to a hatchet shape than in Echinargus (and thus resembling Eumedonia). Valve of a typical holarctic shape, with bullula; elongated, nicely angled at Bayard's point, rather exactly three times as long as broad and at least twice longer than the aedeagus, with a sparsely serrated rostellum. Female: henia long and thin, with a plate-like chitinisation at the tip.
Pseudolucia chilensis Blanchard
(figs. CHI, pi. 5)
Three males and one female (all ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.) investigated: prep. 619, "Central Chile, 1882-1885, leg H. B. James"; 485, 534, "Penco, Chile"; 9 533, id. Rostellum about 0.2 long by 0.03 broad (at curve), incurved as in Echinargzis isola but serrated i.e. ending in a beak-like tip, its inner margin concave (fitting the upper, convex, margin of the mentum in situ), its outer (distad facing) edge below the curve sparsely toothed: four teeth in all counting the "heel" of the abrupt curvature as first, the two next slightly larger and slightly incurved projections as second and third, and the beak of the rostellum as fourth. Other male characters covered by This and the Catochrysopince-like features of the Parachilades (and less dis- tinctly-Chilades) falx constitute the only two links between the Plebejince and other subfamilies.




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34 Psyche [March- June
the generic description and the specific measurements given below.
Female: henia found extruding at a length of 0.45 from tip of body; ostium strengthened by a post-vaginal lamella attain- ing a dorsal length of 0.25 and a lateral one of 0.38 (basad). Papillae anales: length about 0.45 by 0.4 broad. Rods com- paratively short, 0.7.
Measurements (in mm.): sedeagus mean 0.65, suprazonal portion (see also generic description) 0.15-0.18 (mean 0.16)) subzonal 0.48-0.53 (mean 0.5), breadth (in lateral view) 0.12 ; penis 0.56. Furca 0.7-0.9. Sagum (mean) length of lobe 0.48 by 0.42 broad; breadth of granulation 0.1; average length of teeth 0.03. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus : forearm 0.2 1/0.04-0.2 5/O.O5, humerulus 0.05/0.2 1-0.06/0.2 1, shoulder 0.11/0.12, lobe 0.2/0.07-0.23/0.07. Valve 1,3-1,4 with breadth 0.45-0.48: teeth (first three measured from tip to a level pro- longing basad the anterior edge of each next) : first 0.005, sec- ond 0.006, third 0.003, fourth (to junction with third) 0.04. Pseudolucia collina Philippi
(figs. COL, pi. 5)
Prep. 536, "Penco, Chile," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.; female 59 1, id.
Differing from chilensis in greatly reduced size (except as regards the height of the shoulder, as will be seen by referring to the measurements given below) and in the presence of an additional strip of shagreened chitinisation running along the outer margin of each sagum lobe and proximad converging, but not actually fusing, with the similar granulation along the ser- rated inner edge. Rostellum thin, whip-like, very similar (in miniature) to the lajus group in Chilades, very weakly curved, however, and only slightly exceeding the mentum in length (in situ resting upon the bullula), about 0.02 broad, not curving and broadening at the tip (as it does in chilensis) except for a slight rosette-like expansion due to four somewhat up-turned teeth, the first about 0.01 long, the two next gradually diminish- ing, the last barely indicated.'
Female: henia found jutting to a length of 1 mm. (by about '1 do not think I have failed to unfold the tip properly, but still its serration should be checked on more material.




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194.5 I Notes on Neotropical Plebe jince 35 0.07 broad) from the tip of the body. Lamella 0.2 long laterally, twice shorter dorsally.
Measurements (in mm.) : sedeagus 0.43, suprazonal portion 0.11, subzonal 0.32 with breadth (in lateral view) 0.06; penis 0.4, furca 0.5, sagum about 0.3 by 0.2. Breadth of inner granu- lation 0.9, with average length of teeth 0.01; breadth of outer granulation about 0.4. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus: forearm O.l4/0.03, humerulus O.O45/O. 16, shoulder 0.1 1/0.09, lobe 0.2/0.06. Valve 1 with breadth 0.33 ; teeth 0.01 and smaller. The high development of the auroral element in the ground of chilensis and collina is approached among the Plebejince only by the upperside of the Sonoran Plebulina emigdionis and by the intense coloration of the forewing underside in certain indi- viduals of the Spanish Aricia idas Rambur (rechristened at one time "rambur?' by Verity).l The upperside of the females oddly recalls certain Australian Lycsenids belonging to a widely different subfamily.
The underside maculation in chilensis is of a dispositional type frequently met with in Plebejince (and Glaucopsychince) ; the tendency on the part of the I1 macules in forewing to assume a very distal position (quite normal of course in the case of Cu2+ 1A) as well as the rather proximal ("glaucopsychoid") position of Rail in hindwing and the weak pigmentation of the I (split) macules, with an aurora visible only in Cui of hind- wing (in some specimens but absent in the female type), occur in several palsearctic and nearctic species of both subfamilies. The insulse and outer cretules are conspicuous on the upperside of the male and are still more conspicuous in Blanchard's fig- ure of endymion which on the whole differs from chilensis only in being rather thoroughly dusted with blue structural scales (that are sparsely represented basally and along the hindwing dorsum in one of my males of chilensis). In my specimens of collina (a much smaller species) the distal position of the I1 macules R4 to Cui is still better marked and I RM (weak in chilensis) is quite absent - a rather unusual character. In the hindwing, however, where I1 macule Rs is as proximal as in chilensis the resemblance to the latter species abruptly stops at that interspace: the posterior rest of the wing produces in con- ' One would like to suggest that in the future no such renaming, however nec- essary, should be valid unless the author of the new name redescribes the species or subspecies and selects a holotype.




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36 Psyche [March- June
trast to the rather Plebejus scepiolus-like wing of chilensis a remarkable homoptic or mimetic resemblance to Itylos and especially to Parachilades owing to a combination of seven characters: 1. enlarged, more or less cordate shape of median and posterior II macules; 2. their transverse development and connection; 3. the oblique line into which I1 macules Ms to 2A fall; 4. the blurred pigmentation; 5. the weakness of the I macule system; 6. the fusion of distal parts of halos with proxi- mal cretules; and 7. the great development of coarse greyish white scales.
Scolitantides plumbea Butler 188 1 (Trans. Ent. Soc. 1881:486, "Chile") which is possibly the same as Lyccena patago Mabille 1889 (Nouv. Arch. Mus. Paris 1: 143-144 "Punta-Arena" pi. 10, fig. 1 8, 2) belongs to a different subfamily, being structurally the only representative of Glaucopsychince in S. America. Scolitantides andina Calvert 1894 (An. Univ. Chile 34:832, "Condes above Santiago"; Elwes 1903 Trans. Ent. Soc. Lon- don 1903:288-289) may prove to be a synonym of plumbea too. Paralyczides n .g .
(figs. INC, pi. 6)
Type and only species known: Itylos inconspicua Draudt 192 1, (in Seitz, Macrolep. World 5822, "Cuzco, Peru," pi. 144, m)
One male investigated: prep. 607 "Cuzco, Peru, 3500 m. alt., leg. Fassl," ex coll. W. P. Comstock, [ex coll. Staudinger-Bang Haas, "vapa Stgr"], Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. Extremely close to Lycceides, in the falx, furca and valve, and considered here as retaining an ancestral aspect of that genus. Bdeagus resembling Pseudotheda, thickish subzonally, very slightly incurved, just above 0.8 long; differing from Lycceides in the suprazonal portion being twice shorter than the subzonal one and in the higher (at about 0.1 above zone), and thus shorter, vesical opening (the lower point of which is at the zone in Lycceides) . Vesica unarmed; suprazonal sheath tapering to a point ventrally. Furca very large, equal in length to the sedeagus, larger than in Lycceides (especially in relation to the other parts of the armature, less so in absolute size). No defi- nite sagum but traces of a membrane between furca and sub- zonal sheath. Falx of the "plain type" with an outline nicely



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1945 1 Notes on Neotropical Plebejim 37
rounded throughout, remarkably resembling Lycceides argyrog- nomon Bergstrasser (Tutt) in miniature, less distinctly hooked at the tip; distance between point of forearm (F) and posterior point of shoulder (U) equal to that between the latter point and the tip of the uncus lobe (in ventral view) ; forearm short, shorter than the humerulus, the latter medially not thicker than the former, then very gradually thickening to form a low slop- ing shoulder with a rather ill-defined basal point. Uncus lobe resembling Hemiargus, i.e., poorly developed; thus smaller, narrower and slightly more excurved than in Lycceides; in height (length) when measured in the same way as the rest of the genera here treated (i.e., from its tip to the basal point of the humerulus) equal to the humerulus but if measured accord- ing to the method adopted for Lycceides (i.e., from its tip to the posterior point of the shoulder) considerably less than the humerulus (HU) and somewhat less than the forearm (FH). Valve of the Lycceides (and fieyeria) type, smallish as com- pared to Lycceides, one and a half times longer than the aedeagus, about twice as long as broad; rostellum narrower in relation to the valve than in Lycceides, not exceeding the mentum in length, slightly and evenly expanding at the tip to form a comb consist- ing of a dozen teeth, each about 0,0065 in length, i.e. longer than in Freyeria putli Kollar [Moore] (0.0025), shorter than in average Lycceides (0.009), and directed as in those genera (as well as in Cyclargus) at right angles to the transverse axis of the rostellum.
Measurements (in mm.) : aedeagus 0.82 ; suprazonal portion 0.2 7 ; subzonal 0.5 5 with breadth 0.15 (in semilateral view) ; penis 0.66. Furca 0.83. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus: forearm 0.22/0.05, humerulus 0.05/0.24, shoulder 0.11/0.15, lobe 0.24/0.075. When the uncus is measured ac- cording to the method used for Lycceides (see pi. 1, fig. 3, pi. 6, INC 2, and 1944, Psyche 51: 108-1 11, fig. 1) the triangle FHU gives 0.22 +O.24+O.l7 = 0.63. These figures come rather close to the dimensions (0.2 5+0.22 +0.22 = 0.69) of the hypothetical ancestor of Lycceides as worked out (1944, I.c.) prior to the dis- covery of the structure of inconspicua. Valve 1.2 with breadth 0.53; comb 0.061 broad.
In regard to macroscopical characters it may be briefly noted that the wing-shape recalls that of small arctic or high alpine forms of Lymides while the pattern of the underside (very



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38 Psyche [March- June
proximal position of I1 macule Cu2 + 1A in forewing and I1 macule M3 in hindwing, poverty of pigmentation of macules, strong development of halos and other colorless scales) belongs to the same phase, as traversed by the structurally very differ- ent genus Itylos (s.s.).
Itylos Draudt [revised]
(figs. MOZ, RUB, PAC, KOA, pi. 6; MOZ, KOA, pi. 7) At the end of a jumble of species and forms belonging really to several genera and subfamilies but all crammed into "genus Lyccena F, subgenus Rusticus Hbn" (whatever that means), Draudt ( 192 1, in Seitz, Macrolep. World 5 : 8 18) said of Lyccena ruberrothei Weeks ["English" text] : "Perhaps better to be placed to Itylos beside moza and inconspicua." This is the first time the genus Itylos is "indicated." A few pages further ( : 82 1) Itylos Draudt was superficially described and made to include pelorias Weymer, pads [Staudinger in commerce] Draudt, koa Druce, vapa Staudinger [sp. incert . ] , ludicra Weymer [id.], moza Staudinger, inconspicua Draudt [recte Paralycceides sp., supra], titicaca Weymer [recte Parachilades sp., supra] and speciosa Staudinger [id.]. Regarding the two last, however, Draudt said ( : 822) that they belonged to "a somewhat deviat- ing group." Under the circumstances, i.e., since speciosa Stau- dinger [ = titicaca Weymer] is not mentioned in the original list of Itylos species (ruberrothei Weeks [ f ortas.] , moza Staudinger and inconspicua Draudt [now. nud. at the time]) and is only doubtfully assigned to it when the genus is more fully discussed subsequently, Hemming's selection of speciosa Standinger as the type of Ztylos (1929, Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. 3: 240) cannot stand.
Type : Cupido moza Staudinger 1894.
Four species known:
moza Staudinger (Cupido, 1894, Iris 7: 79-80, "Cocapata and Huallatani, Bolivia"; Lyccena, ibid. pi. 2, fig. 5 Q ; Itylos moza, Draudt 1921, op. cit.:818 et:82l; Lyccena babhru Weeks, 1901, Trans. Am. Eat. Soc. 27: 357, "Sicasica, Bolivia"; 1905, Unfig. Lep. : 98, pi. 43, fig. 1 [ 9 I); ruberrothei Weeks (Lyccena, 1902, Ent. News 12: 104 "Sica- sica, Bolivia," 1905 op. cit. : 99, pi. 43, fig. 2 [ 8 ] ; Itylos?, Draudt 1921, op. cit. : 818);
Listed in systematic sequence.




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1945 1 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 39 pads Draudt (Itylos, 1921, op. cit. : 821, "Cuzco, Peru," pi. 144, 1, pads 8 ? ; ?Lyccena pelorias Weymer 1890, in Reiss et Stubel, Reisen in Sud-America, Lepidoptera : 12 1-12 2 "Sajama, Bolivia," pi. 4, fig. 2 8 ) ;
koa Druce (Lymna, 1876, Proc. Zool. Soc. London, 1876 : 239-240, "Pozzuzo, Peru," pi. 18, fig. 7 [ 8 ] ; PWeymer, 1890, op. cit.: 49 "Antisana, Ecuador"; Itylos, Draudt, 192 1, op. cit. : 821 pi. 144, m; [see also "Lyccena koa," Dyar, 1913, Proc. United States Natul. Mus. 45 : 638, who suggests seasonal dimorphism in the tone and density of the blue overlay in Peruvian males].
My study of the bibliography has been very superficial and my material too scanty for a satisfactory revision of these little known species. Lyccena ludicra Weymer 1890 (op. cit. : 122, "Tacora, Bolivia," pi. 4, fig. 3 8 ) may be a form of Itylos moza, or an allied species, with well developed cyanic overlay, and Itylos grata Kohler 1934 (Rev. Soc. ent. Argentina 6 : 38-39 "Las Lajas, Argentina," text fig. [poor phot.] 8 ) is apparently close to pads Weymer. Cupido vapa Staudinger 1894 (Iris 7 : 79, "Huallatani; Cocapata, Bolivia"; Lyccena vapa, ibid. pi. 2, fig. 4 8 ) may turn out to belong to Itylos, and the same may be said of Lyccena martha Dognin 1887 (Le Naturaliste 9 : 190, "Loja, Ecuador"), which, judging by the woodcut (LC. fig. 5 8 2 ) combines Hemiargus and Itylos wing characters and very possibly is a form of koa (some specimens of which have a well formed, "black," scintillated prseterminal mark in Cull with strongly developed ornamentation of the catochrysopoid type.
GENERIC DESCRIPTION
A very holarctic looking genus. Zdeagus acuminate, slightly incurved, in structure and shape closely allied to Icaricia, Aricia, and Lycceides. Suprazonal portion subequal to the subzonal one; suprazonal sheath in ventral view rather narrow above the zone, then slightly broadening, then tapering to a sharp point, and (in side view) laterally enveloping the vesica only immedi- ately above the zone, then gradually turning into a strictly ventral shield. Vesical opening on the dorsal side beginning immediately above the zone, vesica plain, weakly convex, about as long as the subzonal sheath. Alulse small. Furca well devel- oped. Sagum absent. Falx resembling an enlarged edition of



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40 Psyche [March-June
Cyclargus; somewhat allied to Aricia but well formed, with a steeper and narrower shoulder. Forearm straight, tapering to a blunt point, falcal arch narrow, shoulder high and conical though not as high in relation to the falx as it is in Echinargus. Uncus lobe with AlbuZina affinities, larger than in all preceding groups considerably higher than the forearm. Structure of tegumen at its junction with the uncus more elaborate, than in the preceding genera, of a common holarctic type (AZbuIina, Plebulina, etc. ) . Valve likewise representing the holarctic norm, longer than the aedeagus, with a well developed bullula. Rostellum, broader than in Aricia, serrated, exceeding the men- turn in length, differing from Paralycceides in the latter char- acter as well as in the receding margin of the comb, the sharp regular teeth of which are directed downward. Papillae anales with comparatively short rods. Henia well developed, with an oval fibula (koa) somewhat resembling A ricia .
Itylos moza Staudinger
(figs. MOZ, pi. 6, 7)
One male investigated: prep. 606, "Bolivia" ex coll. Hunting- ton [ex coll. Staudinger-Bang Haas], Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., and one female : prep. 52 8 (Lyccena babhru Weeks, holotype) , "Sica- sica, Bolivia, 1-X-1899," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool. Edeagus 1 mm. long with the suprazonal portion slightly shorter (by about 0.1) than the subzonal one. Furca about equal in length to the penis. Forearm a third of the length of the aedeagus, about ten times as long as broad, thus rather thin; humerulus thick, about a third of the forearm in height, and rising to double of that at the shoulder; uncus lobe very slightly excurved, as long as the suprazonal portion of the penis, less than a fourth of that broad, somewhat expanding above the level measured, then gradually tapering to a rather well accused point. Valve large, about one and a half times longer than the sedeagus when measured from the base to the end of the rostel- lum and less than half as broad as long, with the hump at about two thirds of the length of the upper process from the base of the valve.
Measurements (in mm.) : aedeagus 1, suprazonal portion 0.44, subzonal 0.56 with breadth (lateral view) 0.11; penis 0.94. Furca 0.93. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus (ventral



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194.51 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 41 view) : forearm 0.34/0.03, humerulus O.O9/0.2, shoulder 0.17/0.06, lobe 0.44/0.1. Valve 1.35 (to comb 1.55) with breadth 0.59; average length of teeth 0.01. Itylos ruberrothei Weeks
(figs. RUB, pi. 6)
Two males investigated (Mus. Comp. Zool.) : holotype, prep. 52 7, "Sicasica, Bolivia, 1-X-1899" (left forewing missing), and paratype, prep. 486, "Alezum, Bolivia, 8-VIII-1899," ex coll. Weeks.
,
Identical in structural shape with moza,' differing from it only in slightly reduced size (cp. measurements) of sedeagus, furca and uncus, and narrower (cp. to length) valve. Valve variable in length, reduced in the holotype, but equal to moza in the other individual.
Measurements (in mm.) [when different the holotype is quoted first] : sedeagus 0.9, suprazonal portion 0.4; subzonal 0.5 with breadth in lateral view 0.1, in ventral 0.08 ; penis 0.8. Furca (holotype) 0.7. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus : fore- arm 0.24/0.03 and 0.29/0.05, humerulus 0.07/0.12 and 0.07/0.17, shoulder O.l3/0.055 and 0.14/0.05, lobe 0.3 7/O.8 and 0.4/0.09. Valve 1.14 (to comb 1.24) and 1.35 (to comb 1.55) with breadth 0.41 and 0.5. Average length of teeth 0.01. Itylos pads Draudt
(fig. PAC, pi. 6)
One male investigated: prep. 609 "Cuzco, Peru, 3500 m. alt., leg. F'as~l,'~ ex coll. W. P. Comstock [ex coll. Staudinger-Bang Haas], Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
Differing from moza and ruberrothei in the following char- acters: somewhat thicker forearm, smaller and shorter valve, Quite possibly more material would show that ruberrothei is but a form (in- dividual, altitudinal, or microlocal) of moza, similar variations in structural size occurring in other alpine species (eg, Agriades glandon). I have assigned the female specimen (described as babhu) to moza on macroscopical grounds, the difference between the two consisting solely in ruberrothei being less robust in wing shape and less pigmented than moza (with otherwise identical underside markings, the presence of which on the hindwing of ruberrothei may be easily discerned by means of lens, but has been overlooked both by the describer and artist). Staudinger mentions some very weakly marked specimens in his series of moza.




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42 Psyche [March- June
rather medial position of hump, shorter (comparatively to men- turn) rostellem and conspicuously longer teeth. Measurements (in mm.) : sedeagus, 0.95, suprazonal portion 0.45, subzonal 0.5 with breadth (lateral view) 0.12 ; penis 0.85. Furca 0.7. Vertical/Horizontal extension of uncus : forearm 0.29/0.05, humerulus 0.06/0.2, shoulder 0.1 S/O.O6, lobe 0.4/0.9. Valve 1.1 (to comb 1.2) with breadth 0.44; average length of teeth 0.0 17.
Itylos koa Druce
(fig. KOA, pi. 6, 7)
Two males and one female investigated (Mus. Comp. 2001.) : prep. 592, 595 and 593 female, "Puno, Peru, 12,500 ft. alt., 1-XI-1898" ex coll. Weeks.
Separated in uncus and valve from the precedent structures by a wider hiatus than that existing between moza and ruber- rothei on one hand and pads on the other. Bdeagus slightly shorter and thinner than in pacis, furca slightly longer. Fore- arm shorter, rather thicker at its base, then tapering, shoulder smaller, uncus lobe about six times as long as broad, much nar- rower throughout than in the other species. Valve smaller, rather proximally humped, hardly more than half as long as broad, only slightly longer than the sedeagus, with a correspond- ingly reduced comb, very minutely serrated, the teeth a third shorter than in ruberrothei.
Measurements (in mm.) [when different, 592 quoted first] : sedeagus 0.84 and 0.8, suprazonal portion 0.42 and 0.4, subzonal portion 0.42 and 0.4 with breadth (lateral view) 0.08; penis 0.8 and 0.75. Furca 0.76. Vertical/Horizontal of uncus : forearm 0.23/0.05 and 0.2 5/0.05, humerulus 0.08/0.13 and 0.1/0.17, shoulder 0.13/0.05 and 0.1 7/O.O6, lobe 0.3 l/O.O6 and 0.3/0.055. Valve 0.9 (to comb 1) with breadth 0.41 and 0.42; average length of teeth 0.004.
The "vitta" of British authors is a certain combinational pat- tern element occurring on the hindwing underside of a number of Palsearctic Plebejinoe, (and especially conspicuous in certain Agrodicetus species). It is made up of halo and cretule fusions and can be divided into four phases of development: 1. halo M2 (its posterior distal part) and cretule M2 fuse in the posterior part of the cell, i.e., below the interneural fold in Ms, the result- ing white streak occupying the whole space between the fold



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19451 Notes on Neot~opical Plebejina 43
and vein M3; 2. a similar somewhat weaker fusion is added (not occurring alone) in the anterior part of cell M3 and blends along vein M3 with the fusion in the posterior part of cell Ma; 3. halo IM (lower part of first discoidal) fuses with halo Ms which is fused with cretule Ma; 4. halo IIM is also involved, this producing a white comet tail traversing most of the wing, "splitting" it longitudinally and widening distally (owing to fusion 2). When, as often happens in Agrodicetus the rest of the halos and cretules are reduced while the median macules themselves are "dissolved," so to speak, in the vitta, the effect is very striking. In Itylos the vitta effect is produced quite dif- ferently and may be termed a pseudovitta. At its full develop- ment it is formed by the fusion of the halos and cretules in M3, CUi, Cu2, and IA, and would not be distinguishable from sim- ilarly formed blendings in Lycceides, Cyclargus, etc., had not the following three factors been present: 1. owing to the very proximal ("lagging") position of second macule M3 the fusion is lengthened in that cell; 2. together with the shorter fusions in the cubital cells it forms an elongated shiny white mark sub- parallel to the costa; 3. this blending is especially conspicuous because absent in M9 and Mi.
The following general remarks may be added. Of the nine neotropical genera none occur elsewhere. Three, namely Para- chilades, Paralycceides and Itylos, have retained in the Andes (whither they brought them) structural shapes closely similar to such structures from which Chilades, Lycceides and Aricia, respectively, can be easily imagined to have been derived in their Old World homes. Three, namely Pseudochrysops, Hemi- argus and Echinargus reveal certain characters of the palaeo- tropical Freyeria (the first) and Chilades, but have become strongly differentiated in the neotropics. Still more remote is the relationship between Cyclargus, Pseudothecla and Pseudo- lucia on one side and Old World forms on the other. It is to be noted however that Cyclargus and Hemiargus are allied to Ancia and Itylos in the falx. The general Hemhwgus - Echin- argus - Cyclargus type of aedeagus is not found in the Old World and apparently represents a very ancient type retained and developed in the neotropics, but extinct or unrecognizably al- tered elsewhere.




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44 Psyche [March-June
One can assume, I think, that there was a certain point in time when both Americas were entirely devoid of Plebefinas but were on the very eve of receiving an invasion of them from Asia where they had been already evolved. Going back still further, a modern taxonomist straddling a Wellsian time ma- chine with the purpose of exploring the Cenozoic era in a "down- ward" direction would reach a point - presumably in the early Miocene - where he still might find Asiatic butterflies classi- fiable on modern structural grounds as Lycsenids, but would not be able to discover among them anything definitely referable to the structural group he now diagnoses as PlebeJnce. On his return journey, however, he would notice at some point a con- fuse adumbration, then a tentative "fade-in" of familiar shapes (among other, gradually vanishing ones) and at last would find Chilades-Iike and Arkia-like and Lycffiides-like structures in the Paisearctic region.
It is impossible to imagine the exact routes these forms took to reach Chile, and I have no wish to speculate on the details of their progress, beyond suggesting that throughout the evolution of Lycmidve no two species ever became differentiated from each other at the same time in the same habitat (sensu stricto), and that the arrival of Plebefinis in South America preceded the arrival in North America (and differentiation from Old World ancestors) of the genera Icaricia. and Plebulina (and of the spe- cies Ptebejus s~piolus) while the latter event in its turn pre- ceded the invasion of North America by holarctic species which came in the following sequence: Lyc<Eides a~gyrognomon (sub- sequently split), Agriades glandon, Vaccimina optilete. It is to be noted that only those Plebejw which breed freely in the far north of Eurasia (besides enjoying an enormous distribution in other, mainly alpine regions) are common to both Eurasia and America.
In regard to certain Lycsenids of other subfamilies, such as the holotropical Zizida gaika Trimen and the South African and American genus Brephidium, the difficulty of making them take the Bering Strait route is very great, but in the case of Plebejim, the discontinuity in distribution is not so disconcerting, and I find it easier to give a friendly little push to some of the forms and hang my distributional horseshoes on the nail of Nome rather than postulate transoceanic land-bridges in other parts of the world.




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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 45 The majority of neotropical Plebejince possess a sagum or rudiments of one. It is completely absent only in Itylos as it is absent in all palsearctic, nearctic and palseotropical species. This structure can be loosely defined as a fultura superior in relation to the furca (fultura inferior), but its function, if any, is ob- scure. One is inclined to assume that at the time of the invasion of the neotropical region from the north there existed Eurasian forms with rudiments of a sagum (possibly allied at that stage to the anellus now possessed by the Catochrysopince and other subfamilies) which in the subsequent flurry of hectic central palsearctic evolution was lost (and had been already lost by the ancestors of Ztylos) but in the comparative peace of the neo- tropics continued to develop owing to that peculiar evolutionary inertia which in the absence of any obstruction keeps a struc- ture tending to its maximum along certain inheritable lines. In all (80 to 100) Old World and nearctic species the valve is of a very constant general shape.' Among the 19 neotropical species known, "normal" shape occurs in 11 species. The rest show four types of variation unparalleled elsewhere. In this respect the peculiar reduction of the valve in Parachilades, Pseudochysops and Cyclargus would seem to be a case of stunting rather than the retention of a very short valve from which the normal elongate structure of the subfamily was evolved ("pulled out" as it were). In regard to H. hanno and ramon one suspects that the unusual shape is due to the irregular dwarfing of a ceraunus-like valve which had initially attained a very full shape (suggested by some of the Central American specimens), the "keel" in hanno and ramon being probably the remnant of an ample lower margin.
The underside wing pattern of neotropical Plebejince falls into two main types: catochrysopoid and ityloid. The cato- chrystopoid type (Pseudochrysops, Cyclargus, Hemiargus and Echinargus) is shared in the Old World by the small Palseo- tropical section (Chilades and less strikingly, Freyeria) and in result, certain Hemiargus and Echinargus forms are remark- 'A slightly aberrant structure occurs only in Chilades galba and Albulina (auct) felicis and this leads to a false resemblance to certain Glaucopsychina. Which, moreover, in Chilades cleotas (a species ranging from the Malay to the New Hebrides, at least) evolves a likeness to Talicada nyseus (Everince), the behavior of which (deducible from a note in Moore) is that of a "protected" species. Freyeria on the other hand tends, mainly owing to its small size, to a Brephidium aspect.




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46 Psyche [March-June
ably similar to Chilades forms (especially to the gaZba group), the remarkable point being that while the palzeotropical ones are sympatric with the kind of Catoch~ysopince which they re- semble (and which is especially well represented in Africa, e.g., "Euch~ysops" ) , the latter does not exist in the neotropics (where the sparse representatives of the Catoch~ysopince be- long, as exemplified by the holarctic Leptotes, to a different phase of pattern). The Ityloid pattern group includes: Ztylos, one of the two PseudoZucia species, Pa~aZyceides (to a certain extent) and Pa~achiZades. At its initial stage the "pseudovitta" of ZtyZos copies the differently formed vitta of certain palearctic Plebe jince (cp. Ag~odi~tas damon or Akia donzeZZi) . Taking 100 as the minimum number of known PZebejim (see footnote further on) the following figures may be given for the various regions where these insects occur. Only six species exist in the Palzotropical region proper, one reaching the Pakarctic, another reaching both the Palzearctic and S. Africa and a third extending into Australia. As many as 19 (probably more) exist in the neotropical region (12 of these are restricted to the Andes) and nowhere else, except for the fact that 2 reach the nearctic as 2 do in regard to the Caspian and E. Mediter- ranean region (these four invaders are not taken into account further on 2). As many as 60 occur in the Central Palzarctic (between 40 and 90' longitudes). One half of these, with the addition of only half-a-dozen (most of which are poorly differ- entiated) not occurring elsewhere, are found in the Western Palzarctic (the whole of C., N.W. and W. Europe having 20, all of which it shares with the Mediterranean area, while 2 7 can be collected in a narrow area stretching from the southern Alps to the mountains of Spain) ; but in the Eastern Palzarctic the number dwindles to 12, all of which occur also in the Central Palearctic.
Some 30 (of which only 3 are holarctic) are found in the New World, and of these hardly a dozen exist in N. America. A11 these occur in its western Kart; only 5 reach eastern Can- ada and only one sparsely occurs in a large area between the ,
lProvisionally: Euchrysops Butler, $emu ~nihi=Euch~ysops s. Bethune Baker +Neochrysops Bethune Baker minus the niobe group, for which the erection of a separate genus is necessary.
'In the eastern part of the Central Palearctic half a dozen palearctic species attain aIong the mountain chains technically tropical territory. 'The paucity of true butterflies in the eastern United States is unrivalled in any other general area of the same size in the temperate part of holarctic territory.



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194s I Notes on Neotropical Plebe jina 47 Atlantic and the Mississippi, while 2 representatives of the neotropical group invade the more southern states. In conclusion the following complete list of the genera of the Plebe jine of the world is appended.'
PLEBE JINJE (s.s.)
100-120 species in 24 genera
I
I1
I11
IV
v
VI
VII
VIII
IX
x
XI
XI1
XI11
XIV
xv
XVI
Pa~achilades Nab.: t. titicaca Weymer; 1; Neot. in Andes.
Chilades Moore: t. lajus Cramer; 4-5; PT, one reach- ing P,
Pseudochryso~s Nab.: t. bornoi Comstock-Huntington; 1; Neot. in W. I.
~~clai~us Nab.: t. ammon Lucas; 4; Neot. in W. I. to Fla.
Hemiargus Hubner : t. cerargus Fabricius ; 3 ; Neot ., one reaching S. Nea.
Echina~gus Nab. : t. isola Reakirt; 2 ; Neot., one reach- ing S W Nea.
Pseudolztcia Nab.: t. chilensis Blanchard; 2; Neot. in Andes.
Pseudothecla Nab.: t. faga Dognin; 1 ; id. Paralyc~ides Nab. : t. inconspima Weymer ; 1 ; id. Lyc~ides Hiibner : t. urgyrognomon Bergstrasser (Tutt); 6; P, Nea, P-l-Nea.
~re~eria ~ourvoisier : t .. trochihs ; 2 ; PT one reaching I?, the other reaching AU.
Plebejus Kluk: t. argus Linnzeus; 7-8; P, one in Nea. Plebulina Nab. : t. emigdionis Grinnell ; 1 ; S.W. Nea. Ztylos Draudt: t. moza Staudinger; 4; Neot. in Andes. Akia R.L. : t. agestis [Schiff ] ; 6-8 ; P. Zcaricia Nab. : t. ica~ioides Boisduval; 5 ; W. Nea. Abbreviations: t - type of genus. P - Palearctic Region. PT - Palzeo- tropical (excluding AU - Australia) ? Nea - Nearctic (excl. Florida) , Neot. -
Neotropical. The figure after the type refers to the number of species in the genus. When two numbers are given, the second includes additional species which I have not dissected myself? but which have been figured (genitalia) by other observers. I have not taken into account several names in Forster's (1938, LC.) list which in various respects is very unreliable. 'The correct name of which is Freyeria putli Kollar - granted of course that Chilades putli Moore and Chilades trochilus isophtalma Waterhouse (nec Her- rich-Schaffer) which 1 have dissected are the same as Lyc~na putli Kollar from North India whence I have no material.




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48 Psyche [March-June
XVII PoZyommatus Latreille : t. kams Rottemburg; 7-9 ; P. XVIII Vacciniina Tutt : t. optilete Knoch; 4; P7 one P+Nea. XIX Eumedonia Forster: t. eumedon Esper ; 1 ; P. XX AZbulina Tutt : t. o~bitulus Prunner ; 6-7 ; P. XXI Agriades Hubner: t. glandon Prunner; 4; P, one Pi- Nea.
XXII Cyani~is Dalman: t. semiargus Rottemburg; 1 71 P. XXIII MeZeage~ia Stempffer : t. nzeleage~ Esper; 1 ; P. XXIV Ag~odietus Hubner (incl. Lysand~a Hemming) : t. da- mon Schiff ; 2 5-35 ; P.
EXPLANATION OF PLATE I
All figures X 180 +- 2
1. Edeagus of Agrodicetus (=Lysandra) cormion Nabokov (? hybrid between Agrodicetus coridon Poda and Meleageria meleager Esper) , paratype7 "Moulinet, Alpes Maritimes [S. France], 20-VII-1938 leg. V. Nab~kov~'~ Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., in dorsal view.
2. adeagus (generalised Hemiargus s.1. etc.) in lateral view; 3. Plain falx (Lycceides) ; 4 Humped falx (Hemiargus etc.) ; 5. Angulate falx (Agrodi~tus cormion7 same specimen as 1). 1,2. Measurements of xdeagus ( = penis + sheathing) : d. distal point (often notched) of suprazonal sheath shielding vesica ventrally (projecting from under the vesica in fig. 1 as seen from the dorsal side of the organ) ; It. lateral edges of ventral part of suprazonal sheath (when fully developed these enfolding edges just reach the dorsal side of the organ and in dorsal view appear to line the vesica laterally as in Agrodicetus etc.) ; 0. point at which the suprazonal sheath opens on the dorsal side (this point coincides with the zone in several genera, e.g. Ag~odi~tus) ; c. Chapman7s process: a not unfrequently occurring spine-like or filament-like prolongation (of the dorsal lining of the sheath) running along the vesica. v. vesica (exposed distal portion of penis proper) studded with cornuti (minute hook-like or spine-like structures not represented in a number of genera) ; e. everted frothy membrane of vesica in erection; z. zone (level at which the organ is attached to the genital cavity) ; aa. aluls (out-turned flaps of subzonal sheath) ; p. base of penis enclosed in subzonal sheath; tt. proximal tabs of subzonal sheath.
dt. length of zedeagus; dz. length of suprazonal sheath ventrally; oz. length of suprazonal sheath dorsally (excluding Chapman's process) ; do. length of vesical opening on the dorsal side; zt. length of subzonal sheath with breadth measured at w in lateral view ; vp. length of penis proper. 3'4'5. Right uncus lobe with falx in flat ventral view; FHBUSA- fah, LUB- uncus lobe.
F- point of forearm; H- point of elbow; B- basal point of humerulus; U- pos- terior point of shoulder proper; S- summit of shoulder; u- anterior point of shoulder ; A- apex of (proximally directed) falcal arch ; L- distal point of uncus lobe.
lpersephatta Alpheraky which Stempffer (followed by Forster) makes con- generic with semiargus (apparently on the strength of a casual note in Chapman) belongs to another subfamily (Glauco~sychin~) .



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194.5 I Notes on Neotropkal Plebe jina 49 FH- vertical extension of forearm with its horizontal extension measured at level f ; Ah- vertical extension of humerulus, and HB- horizontal extension; Sb- verti- cal extension of shoulder proper with its horizontal extension measured at level s ; LB- vertical extension of uncus lobe with its horizontal extension measured at 1. (For valve see expl. of pl. 6, fig. MOZ 3) In Lyc~ides the triangle EHU (with HU giving the oblique length of the humerulus and with EU equal to LU) provides characters for separating the species, while in Agrodi&us and some other genera the length of the elbow (AH) is of taxonomic importance. .
I take the opportunity to figure the genitalia (1,s) of the curious butterfly described by me much too briefly in 1941 (J. New York Ent. SOC. 49: 265-267). Both in zdeagus and in falx it seems to be intermediate between A. coridon Poda and M. meleager Esper.
TIT- Parachilades titicaca Weymer (f. "speciosa")) prep. 488, "Sicasica, Bo- livia? 1-x-1899'' ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001. CLE- Chilades cleotas kaiphas Fruhstorfer) prep. $85) "Morobe Dist., New Guinea, 19-11-1932, leg. H. Stevens" Mus. Comp. 2001. PAN - Chilades pandava Horsfield [jide Moore] (Swinhoe 1910 [Edalesl, Chapman 1916)) prep. 548, "Kandy [Ceylon])' ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool.
CON-Chilades galba contracts Butler (Chilades cnejus Chapman, nec Fabri- cius), prep. 596, '(Karachi [N.W. India]" ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001. FAG - Pseudothecla faga Dognin, prep. 611, "Peru," ex coll. Huntington, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist.
BOR-Pseudochrysops bornoi Comstock-Huntington, paratype, prep. 496) "Pont-Beudet, Haiti? about 100 ft. alt., 3-4-111-1922))' ex coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mus. Comp. 2001.
1 - Bdeagus, lateral view. la - tip of same in ventral view. 2 - furca (BOR with membranous lining).
3 - uncus lobe, falx and part of tegumen? ventral view. 4 - valve.
5 - rostellum.
All figures X 90 + 2
DOM (1-4) - Cyclargus dominica Moschler? prep. $01, "Baron Hill, Jackson Town (Jamaica) 1200 ft. alt., III? leg. L. Perkins))' Mus. Comp. Zool. AMN - Cyclargus amwzon Lucas
AMN 1 -prep. 507 "Sierra Maestra) E. Cuba7 1,000 ft. alt., 16-VI-1930) leg. Clorinda Querci?)' ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001. AMN la, 2)3,4 - prep. 375 "id. 23-VII-1930, id.)" id. WOO - Cyclargus woodrufi Comstock-Huntington, prep. 537, "Tortola, Virgin Islands, 2-IV-1925 ex coll. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist.? Mus. Comp. 2001. TH. (TH.? NO., BE,) - Cycla~gus thomasi Clench TH.TH1- thomasi thowzasi Clench, prep. 565, "Great Inagus, Bahamas? 11-1934, Armour Exp.," Mus. Comp. 2001.




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[March- June
TH.TH 4 -id., prep. 516, id.
TH.TH. lb, 2,3 -id., holotype, prep. 520, ('Arthur Town, Cat Isl., Bahamas, 16-VII-1935, leg. W. J. Clench," Mus. Comp. 2001. TH.NO 3 - thomasi noeli Comstock-Huntington, paratype, prep, 502, ''Haiti, leg. P. R. Uhler," Mus. Comp. 2001.
TH.BE la - thomasi bethune-bakeri Comstock-Huntington, prep. 581, "Miami, Florida, 8-15-IX," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001. TH.BE 3 -id., prep. 519, "Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 23-VI-1933, leg, M. Bates," Mus. Comp. 2001.
1, a)b - izdeagus, with sagum and furca (except AMN la) 1 - lateral view
1 a -ventral
1 b -dorsal
2 - uncus lobe and falx, ventral view.
. 3 - valve
4 - comb of valve, X 360 + 2
All figures, except when otherwise stated, X 90 + 2 EXPLANATION OF PLATE 4
HA (with abbreviations of localities) - Hemiargus hanno St011 HA. Sur.- H. hanno hanno Stoll, neotype, prep. 601, "Paramaribo, Surinam, 18-IV-1927," ex coll. Cornell Univ., Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist. HA. Bra. - H. hanno hanno prox., prep. 577, "Sao Paulo, Brazil, V, leg. Bruno Pohl," Mus. Comp. 2001.
HA. Ven. - H. hanno ssp., prep, 537a, "Suapure) Venezuela, 27-VI-1899," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.
HA. Bol. - H. hanno ssp., prep. 517, "Chulumani, Bolivia, 28-XI-1898, ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.
HA. Col. - H. hanno bogotana Draudt, prep. 602, "Cota, n. Bogota, Colombia, 2,600 m. alt., 28-VIII, 1938, leg. T. Hallinan," ex coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mus. Comp. 2001.
HA. Pan. - H. hanno ssp., prep. 600 "El Volcan Chiriqui, Panama, 3-111-1936) leg. E. E. Lutz," ex coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mus. Comp. 2001. HA. Bar.-H. hanno ssp., prep. $11, "Barro Colorado, Panama, 2-11, leg. M. Bates,'' Mus. Comp. 2001.
HA. Mar. - H. hanno ssp., prep. 568) "Martinique" Mus. Comp. 2001. .
HA. P.R. - H. hanno watsoni Comstock-Huntington, paratype, prep. 569, "San Juan, Puerto Rico, 11-14-11-1914," Mus. Comp. 2001. HA. His. - H. hanno ssp., prep. 498) "La Vista and vic., La Selle Range, Haiti, 5-7,000 ft. alt., 16-23-IX-1934, leg. M. Bates," Mus. Comp. 2001. RAM - Hemiargus ramon Dognin, prep. 616, "San Rafael, Ecuador, leg. E. W. Rorer, VII-1919)" Mus. Comp. 2001.
CE (with abbreviations of localities) - Hemiargus ceraunus Eabricius CE. CE. - H. ceraunus ceraunus Eabricius, prep. 570, ('Kingston, Jamaica, 6- XII-1871," ex coll. Scudder, Mus. Comp. 2001. CE. His. - H. ceraunus ssfi., prep. 499, "Ennery, Haiti, n. 1,000 ft. alt., 16-VIII- 1934, leg. M. Bates," Mus. Comp. 2001.




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Notes on Neotropical Plebejinx
CE. Nav.- H. ceraunus ssp., prep. 566, "Navassa Is., West Indies, XII-1929, leg. W. J. Clench," Mus. Comp. Zool.
CE. Cub. - H. ceraunus filenus Poey, prep. 515, "Sierra Maestra, E. Cuba, 1,000 ft. alt., 10-XI-1929, leg. 0. Querci," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001. CE. Bah. - H. ceraunus ssp., prep. 564, "Clarencetown, Long Is., Bahamas, II- 1934, leg. Armour Exp.," Mus. Comp. 2001. CE. Fla.- H. ceraunus antibubastus Hubner, prep. 525, "Egmont, Florida, 23- IV-1904," ex coll. Fall, Mus. Comp. 2001. CE. Mass. - H. ceraunus antibubastus Hubner, prep. 579, "So. Abington, Massa- chusetts, V-1880, leg. J. E. Bates," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool. CE. Ari. - H. ceraunus gyas Edwards, prep. 523, "Baboquavaria Mts., Pima Co., Arizona, 15-30-VII-1903, leg. 0. C. Poling" ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool.
CE. Cal. -H. ceraunus gyas Edwards prox., prep. 524, "San Diego, California, 14-VIII-1908, leg. Geo. H. Field," ex coll. H. C. Fall, Mus. Comp. Zool. CE. Mex. - H. ceraunus zachceina Butler prox., prep. 613 and 509, "Apatzingan, Michoacan, Mexico, 1,200 ft. alt., moist jungle La Majada, at mud, 8-VIII- 1941, leg. R. Haag," Mus. Comp. Zool.
CE. C.R. - H. ceraunus zachceina Butler, prep. 513, "Punto Araras, Costa Rica, 11-XI-187 1," ex coll. Scudder, Mus. Comp. Zool. CE. Col. - H. ceraunus ssp., prep. 575, "Colombia," ex coll. Paine, Mus. Comp. Zool.
1 - sedeagus with furca and rudimentary sagum, lateral view, a - distal portion, ventral view
b - id., dorsal view
2 - uncus lobe, falx and part of tegumen 3 - valve
All figures X 90 2
N.SP - Echinargus sp. prep. 578, "Port of Spain, Trinidad, XII-1912-V-1913, leg. R. Thaxter," Mus. Comp. Zool.
IS0 - Echinargus isola Reakirt
IS0 1,2 -prep. 540, "Tancitaro, Michoachan, Mexico, 6,000 ft. alt., on faxes, 10-VII-1941, leg. R. Haag," Mus. Comp. 2001. IS0 la, 3 -prep. 478, "Round Mt., Texas, IX-1930, ex coll. Fall," Mus. Comp. 2001.
CHI - Pseudolucia chilensis Blanchard
CHI 1, a,b -prep. 619, "Central Chile, 1882-1885, leg. H. B. James," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.
CHI 2,3,4 - prep. 534, "Penco, Chile," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool. COL - Pseudolucia collina Blanchard, prep. 536, "Penco, Chile," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.
l,a, b, aedeagus with sagum and furca (IS0 la, sagum separate) 1 -lateral view, 1 a, ventral view, 1 c, dorsal view 2 - uncus lobe, falx and part of tegumen 3 - valve
,
4 - comb of valve X 360 2
All figures, except when otherwise stated, X 90 2



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[March- June
INC - Paralycceides inconspicua Draudt, prep. 607, "Cuzco, Peru, 3,500 m. alt., leg. Fassl," ex coll. W. P. Comstock, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. KOA - Itylos koa Druce, prep. 592, "Puno, Peru, 12,500 ft. alt., l-XI-1898," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool.
PAC - Itylos pads Draudt, prep. 609, "Cuzco, Peru, 3,500 m. alt., leg. Fassl" ex coll. W. P. Comstock, Am. Mus. Nat. Hist. RUB - Itylos ruberrothei Weeks
RUB l,a,2,3 - holotype, prep. 527, "Sicasica, Bolivia, l-X-1899" ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.
RUB 4 - paratype, prep. 486, "Alezum, Bolivia, 8-VIII-1899" ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.
MOZZtylo moza Staudinger, prep. 606, "Bolivia," ex coll. Huntington, Am. Mus. Comp. Zool.
1 - aedeagus with furca, lateral view (except RUB 1 where the furca is not shown and KOA 1 where it is in ventral view as also in RUB la) a - aedeagus, ventral view
2 - Uncus lobe, falx and part of tegumen (note VAP 2 to which the method of measurement used for Lycceides has been applied) 3 - Valve: sp - superior process ; r - rostellum (free end of superior process) ; c - comb (serrated distal margin of rostellum) ; ip - inferior process ; m - mentum (jutting end of inferior process) ; b - bullula (membranous swell- ing between mentum and rostellum) ; bs - base. The length of the valve is measured from m to bs; its breadth at the broadest part (at the "hump" or Bayard's angulation) .
4 - comb of valve X 360 2:
All other figures X 90 2
EXPLANATION OF PLATE 7
Female armature
TIT - Parachilades titicaca Weymer, prep. 590, "Sicasica, Bolivia, l-X-1899," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool.
BOR - Pseudochrysops bornoi Comstock-Huntington, paratype prep. 605, "Pont Beudet, Haiti, about 100 ft. alt., 3-4-111-1922,'' ex coll. Am. Mus. Nat. Hist., Mus. Comp. Zool.
AMN- Cyclargus ammon Lucas, prep. 530, "Sierra Maestra, E. Cuba, 1,000 ft. alt., 3-XI-1929, leg. 0. Querci," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool. HAN - Hemiargus hanno hanno Stoll prox., prep. 532, "Sgo Paulo, Brazil, V, leg. Bruno Pohl," Mus. Comp. Zool.
CER - H. ceraunus antibubastus Hubner, prep. 582, "Ft. Lauderdale, Florida, 10-VII-1933, leg. M. Bates," Mus. Comp. Zool. N. SP - Echinargus sp., prep. 597 "Port of Spain, Trinidad, XII-1912-V-1913, leg. R. Thaxter," Mus. Comp. Zool.
ISO- Echinargus isola Reakirt, prep. 587, "Dallas, Texas, leg. Boll," Mus. Comp. Zool.
CHI - Pseudolucia chilensis Blanchard, prep. 533, "Penco, Chile," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool.
COL-Pseudolucia collina Philippi, prep. 591, "Penco, Chile," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool.




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Notes on Neotropical Plebejince
MOZ - Itylos mom Staudinger, prep. 528 (Lyccena babhru Weeks, holotype) 'Sicasica, Bolivia 1-X-1899," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. Zool. KOA - Itylos koa Druce, prep. 593, "Puno, Peru, 12,500 ft. alt., 1-XI-1898," ex coll. Weeks, Mus. Comp. 2001.
1 -papillae anales (Kusnezov 1912) (note pathological swelling of rod of left papilla in N. SP. la)
2 -fibula, with or without portion of henia, dorsal view 3 - same, lateral view
4 - henia (Chapman 1916), completely exserted in COL 4 and IS0 4, lateral view. All figures X 90 2
Echinargus, n. sp., "Port of Spain, Trinidad, XII-1912-V-1913, leg. R. Thaxter," Mus. Comp. Zool. Left Hindwing underside, X 6.5.



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194.5' 1 Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 55 PSYCHE, 1945
VOL. 52, PLATE 2
TIT 4




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1945 I Notes on Neotropical Plebejinx 57 PSYCHE, 1945
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19451 Notes on Neotropical Plebejins
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60 Psyche
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194.5 I Notes on Neotropical Plebejince 61



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Volume 52 table of contents