A Review of the Chrysopidae (Nothochrysidae) of Central America.
Psyche 52(3-4):139-174, 1945.
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A REVIEW OF THE CHRYSOPIDE
(NOTHOCHRYSIDB) OF CENTRAL AMERICA
BY NATHAN BANKS
Museum of Comparative Zoology
Many years ago the writer described a few species from Central America, including Baja California. Since then Navas has published a large number of species. For some years the author has had a manuscript synopsis of the species in the Museum. In 1937 Professor Roger Smith visited the various European museums to study the types of Chrysopidae; he has given me a copy of these notes. With this most useful help I have felt emboldened to present tables to the species known to me, with descriptions of some new forms. Besides the specimens at the Museum of Comparative Zool- ogy I have seen those belonging to the American Museum of Natural History, the Academy of Natural Sciences of Phila- delphia, and the U. S. National Museum.
As to classification, I have made an attempt to get away from dependence upon the divisory veinlet.
In the Central American forms I seeloutside of the Apo- chrysinse, three groups, one those represented by Nadiva and allies, in which the joints of the antennae are very broad, the thorax broad, the venation more or less irregular, particularly in the discoidal cell; the anal area of the hind wings is large and the branches of anal veins sometimes forked. The second group is that based on Chrysopa and allies in which the stigma1 area is unmarked, and the medius of fore wing slopes down evenly to its marginal fork. This genus should be divided. The third group is that of Nodita and Leucochrysa, in which there is a dark mark at the base of stigma, and the medius curves to Published with the aid of a grant from the Museum of Comparative Zool- ogy at Harvard College.
140 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
join the outer gradates; if not curving it is at least bent some- what before forking. If one has assorted many specimens of Nodita and Leucochrysa he will find specimens that arouse doubt. Specimens put in Nodita sometimes have the divisory vein ending at the upper end of cell, and Navas has described one (notha) with the divisory vein ending as in Leucochrysa. A specimen that has the divisory cell as typical of Leucochrysa as in L. vayia was the last straw. For in other structures and in coloration it agrees closely with the large species of Nodita, azvedoi, maronica, eg~eg~ia, etc., having the radial sector much curved, partly black, the costal area rather narrow, the mar- ginal forks wholly brown, and in the hind wing the marginal vein on hind margin is brown.
I am convinced that the difference between Nodita and Leu- cochrysa does not reside in the divisory cell, but in the course of the radial sector.
In Nodita the costal area at broadest is rarely equal to the radial area (at broadest), and the radial sector at widest part of the radial area is at least as near to medius as to the radius. In Leucochrysa the costal area at broadest is about equal to or broader than the radial area (at broadest), and the radial sector at broadest part of radial area is plainly nearer to radius than to the medius.
Between Nodita and Chrysopa I have depended chiefly on the dark mark in stigma for Nodita. Many species of Nodita, on drying, tend to have the pronotum collapsed transversely, a deep groove along the middle; the transverse groove being close to the hind margin; some Nodita, however, show the transverse groove near middle of length.
Those species of Nodita and of Leucochrysa perhaps in which the medius does not so plainly curve to join the outer gradates might go into another genus; but I would prefer to find for it some other character. The width of the costal stigma1 area in the true Leucochrysas is usually more than those that would be split off by this division; but the width grades so much it is not dependable. It might even be suggested to unite the large and typical Leucochrysa with the large Nodita into one genus, there is much in common, but the comparative widths of the costal and radial areas appear to keep them apart. The genera are much the same as those of northern South America, and in several cases the species; in northern Mexico
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 141 there are several species which occur in the southern part of the United States.
I have listed as "species" all forms that I could distinguish fairly definitely by color as well as by structure. The markings of the head and thorax and sometimes of abdomen are generally constant. There is always some variation, but it is often in extent or distinctness of development, rather than presence or absence. Specimens sometimes become discolored, and then it is difficult to determine face-marks. The study of male genitalia in this group will serve better to differentiate the species, but tends to neglect other structures which may be of value in de- fining subspecies, varieties, and races, which will surely follow more extensive studies. Taxonomy is not simply to show how species can be separated, but just as truly to show how they can be allied, - classified. Although the genitalia in many groups are the most valuable in distinguishing forms, one should remember that in Nature no species is kept separate by the structure of its genitalia.
The name Chrysopa is a pure synonym of Hemerobius, and no scrapping of rules can change that fact. But until Chrysopa can be split into a number of genera (only one small one will have to take the name Hemerobius) I shall utilize the old name. Rambur a hundred years ago provided a name for the Heme- robius of McLachlan and Hagen.
Key to Genera
1. Third cubital cell not divided; costal area very broad; no regular series of gradates; five or six branches of radius beyond subcosta; radials often connected by cross-veins . Apochysince Third cubital cell divided in some way; costal area much narrowed at stigma1 area; rarely more than three branches to radius beyond subcosta; cross-veins in middle area mostly in two or three series . . . . . . . . . Chrysopince 2 2. Antennae on basal half, at least, with the joints plainly broader than long;
a - Thorax moderately slender; antennae with basal joints rather widely separated, and slender; in male with a process between antennae . . . . . . Meleoma b -Thorax broad, basal joints of antennae stout and little separated, no process between them; in hind wing branches of anal often forked . . . . . . Nadiva
142 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
Joints of the antennae, except a few toward base, are plainly longer than broad, pronotum often more slender, and in hind wings the anal branches not forked . . . . . . . . 3 3. Medius of fore wing slopes down to its marginal fork, scarcely, if at all, bent; no dark spot at base of the stigma; antennae but little longer than wings . . . . . . . . 4 Medius before marginal fork usually curves up a little to run into the outer gradate series; if it does not it is at least bent at that place; nearly always a dark spot at the base of the stigma; antennae often very long; divisory vein often oblique and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4. Divisory vein ends on the end of third cubital cell and about parallel to both medius and cubitus . . Chrysopodes Divisory vein ends on the medius, before end of the cell, and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
is often curved 5
5. Inner series of gradates absent in either hind or both pairs of wings; radius usually has three or more branches to the margin beyond end of subcosta; small species with few cells and the cubital area broad . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Inner series present with at least one gradate in both wings 7 6. Wing veins and much of body greenish; no inner gradates in either wing . . . . . . . . . . . Chrysopiella Wing veins and much of body brownish; inner gradates usually present in fore wing . . . . . . . Eremochrysa 7. In male a process between the antennae, in female the basal joints of antennae more widely separate than in Chrysopa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Meleoma No process between the antennae, which are rather close to each other at base . . . . . . . . . . . Chrysopa 8. Divisory vein parallel to each side of the third cubital cell; a series of cross-veins connecting some of the radials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carcarulla Divisory vein oblique . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9. A cross-vein before radial sector, usually but five cubital cross-veins beyond the divisory cell . . . . Berkmansus No cross-vein before radial sector; usually six or more cu- bitals beyond divisory cell . . . . . . . . . . . 10 10. With a more or less complete third gradate series be- tween the other two . . . . . . . . . . . . Neula No intermediate gradate series . . . . . . . . . 11
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 143 11. Some costal cross-veins above origin of radial sector strongly sinuous; divisory cell more or less of a V; costal area wider than radial; costal stigmal area four times as broad as the subcostal stigma1 area . . . . . . . . . . Vieira No such sinuous costals, costal stigmal area usually less broad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 12. Radial sector more strongly curved, so that the widest part of the radial area is nearer to the medius than to the radius; costal area usually rather narrow and not as broad as radial area; divisory vein usually ends on the medius plainly before end of cell . . . . . . . . . . . . Nodita Radial sector less curved so that at the widest part of the radial area it is as near or nearer to radius than to medius; costal area usually broader than radial area; divisory vein usually ends on the end of the cell . . . . . . . . . 13 13. Stigma with a large black spot extending back to the radial sector; costal stigmal area usually twice as broad as the subcostal stigma1 area . . . . . . . . . . Gonzaga Stigma1 mark much smaller; costal stigmal area rarely twice as broad as the subcostal stigma1 area . . . . Leucochrysa Two genera recorded from this region by Navas I have not been able to recognize in the material studied. Ancylochrysa 1928 from Costa Rica from the odd divisory vein it might be near Goliva; but he says nothing about short antenna1 joints, the radial sector is little curved and the costal area broad as in Leucochrysa; the radius has several branches to margin beyond end of the subcosta; the medius slopes evenly to its marginal fork.
Orlandsia 19 l4a from Chiriqui has the divisory vein as in Nodita, otherwise it is (according to figure) much like Ancylo- chrysa, the costal area being broad, the radial sector little curved, the medius running to its marginal fork without a bend, no mark in stigma, and the costal part of stigma much broader than the subcostal; both have a very broad post cubital area. Four forms are known from Central America. Lainius constellatus Navas 19 13, from Guatemala. Domenechus sigillatus Navas 19 13, from Guatemala. Kimmins 1940 states this is the Apochrysa mirifica Gerst.
Loyola croesus Gerst. 1893, from Chiriqui. Loyola mirifica Gerst. 1888, from Chiriqui. Kimmins 1940 puts this in Domenechus.
Table to Species of Chrysopa
1. Face with dark marks as in Ch. oculata, second joint of antennae dark, beyond pale . . . . . . . . mexicanus . . . . . . . . . . . .
No such marks . 2
2. Antennae beyond second joint black, at least for a short distance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 5 . . . . .
Antennae beyond second joint wholly pale 3 3. Basal joint of antennae with dark spot or stripe . . 4 Basal joint unmarked . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 4. Basal joint with 'two dark stripes, gradates parallel and near together . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a~ioles Basal joint with but one dark stripe . . . . . . . 5 5. A good-sized black spot each side on pronotum . discolor No such spots . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. Palpi dark 7 Palpi pale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 7. Inner gradates bowed up toward radial sector; branches of radial sector much bent by inner gradates .... annotaria
Inner gradates parallel to outer row; branches of radial sector scarcely bent by inner gradates . . . . . . . 8 8. Head, face, vertex, and basal antenna1 joint suffused with reddish; practically all cross-veins dark; about five inner gradates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dampfina Head not suffused with reddish; inner gradates often but three; third cubital cell much narrowed at base, and often but one branch to hind margin, two from fourth cell . . . . 9
9. Abdomen pale as the thorax; pronotum narrowed from . . . . . . . . . . . . .
base to the front valida
Abdomen darker than thorax; pronotum not narrowed, except near front . . . . . . . . . . . . tolteca 10. Reddish mark on cheeks, face broadly reddish; vertex red each side; gradates not parallel; pronotum with two red spots on each side before margin . . . . . . . . bates; No reddish or other mark on cheeks . . . . . . 11
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 145 11. Inner gradates not reduced, both series more or less . . . . . .
plainly bordered, and not parallel
Inner gradates often reduced about half, close to and nearly parallel to outer row, not bordered; radials dark only in . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. Venation almost wholly pale greenish, gradates not dark ; divisory cell usually ends before the cross-vein above .
Venation with some cross-veins at least partly dark and the . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
gradates dark 14
13. Cubital area more than one half as wide as the post cubital; reddish on cheeks usually extends upward by side of . . . . . . . . . . .
eye, no black streak comanche
Cubital area not quite one half as wide as the post cubital area; a black streak by side of the red on cheek . californica
14. Seven cubital cross-veins beyond the divisory cell; a dark spot on each cheek and one each side on clypeus; venation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
largely green f acialis
. . . . . . . .
Six cubitals beyond divisory cell 15
15. Some veins behind radial sector bordered with yellowish, the gradates bordered with brown; no mark on cheeks; palpi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . .
No veins bordered with yellowish
16. Palpi dark or lined; inner gradates arise before or very . . . . . . .
near the penultimate cubital cross-vein 19 Palpi pale; inner gradates arise much beyond the penultimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
cubital cross-vein 17
17. A reddish or dark spot at each corner of the pronotum; . . . . . . . . . .
no marks under eyes tetrasticta
Not four spots on pronotum, a mark under each eye . . 18
18. Pronotum red on sides; cubital area as broad as post cubital area; usually twelve radials, and but three or four . . . . . . . . . . . .
inner gradates brevihirta
Pronotum not red on sides; cubital area not nearly as broad as post cubital area, all cubital cells longer than broad; usually . . . . about ten radials and five inner gradates fairchildi
19. Inner gradates strongly divergent from the outer ones 20 Gradates parallel or nearly so; often a red or dark mark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
under eye 21
146 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
20. Gradates converge behind so their bases are near each . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . Gradates have bases very far apart divergens
21. Pronotum as long as broad, with an interrupted red . . . . . . . . . .
stripe each side, not on margin
. . . . . . . . . .
Pronoturn broader than long 23
22. Pronotum much longer than broad; inner gradates nearer to radial sector than to outer, arise at or before penul- . . . . . . . . . .
timate cubital cross vein angztsta
Pronotum only a little if any longer than broad; inner gra- dates arise beyond penultimate cubital cross-vein . yucatanensis 23. Divisory cell ends at or before the cross-vein above; . . . . . . . . . . . . .
cheeks reddish exotera
Divisory cell ends well beyond the cross-vein above . . 24
24. Cheeks dark; most cross-veins dark at ends; inner gradates parallel, each veinlet far from next . . . perfecta Cheeks pale; cross-veins not dark at ends; inner gradates slightly divergent and each veinlet is close to next . . forreri 2 5. A dark mark in a curve across upper edge of clypeus; palpi marked with dark; gradates parallel . . . aztecana . . . . . . . .
No dark across on clypeus or face 2 6
26. Two dark lines on each basal antennal joint . bilineata But one dark line on basal antenna1 joint . . . . . 27 . . . . . . .
No dark line on basal antenna1 joint 31
2 7. Black spot on cheeks; palpi pale . . . . . . 28 . . . .
No dark on cheeks; pronoturn reddish on sides 29 28. Radial area not as wide as postcubital area; many cross- . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
veins dark gradata
Radial area about as broad as the postcubital; posterior half of wing with mostly pale veins (except gradates) . indicata 29. Inner gradates near to radial sector, gradates not quite . . . . . . .
parallel; many costals wholly dark sarta Inner gradates close to outer row and parallel thereto . 30
30. Some gradates and some branches of radial sector bor- dered; pronotum about twice as broad as long . . berlandi No gradates nor other veins bordered; pronotum only a little broader behind than long, narrowed toward front . . adoina 31. Palpi partly dark; cubital area as broad as the costal
1945 1 Chrysopidae of Central America 147 area; costals and radials wholly dark; pronotum not margined . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
with reddish 32
Palpi not marked with dark, costals and radials less dark; . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
wings rather slender 33
32. Pronotum with a pair of submedian dark stripe . incerta . . . . . . .
Pronotum without any stripes leptana
. . . . . . . .
33. Margin of pronotum reddish 34
. . . . . . . .
Margin of pronotum not reddish
34. Cheeks with reddish mark; basal joint of antennas red- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . .
Cheeks not marked clave~i
35. Inner and outer gradates very close to each other, and . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Gradates widely separated, inner sloping upward, and not . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Species that I have not recognized in the material and could not place from the descriptions and notes, some of which are probably synonyms.
Chrysopa sanguine0 Navas 1927, near to caligata, but it does not agree in various points.
Chrysopa rubricosa Navas 1914, the figure shows marks on head that I have not seen in any species. Chrysopa effusa Navas 19 1 1, may possibly be Ch. gradata ; the latter has some of the branches of cubitus as Navas figures for effusa, but the divisory cell is not dark. Chrysopa guatemalteca Navas 1914 is very near Ch. sarta Bks. There are fewer gradates in sarta than stated for guate- malteca, and sarta has no dark in hind wing, and antenna1 stripe broad. If the same, guatemalteca has a month or more priority.
Chrysopa bouvieri Navas 192 3 and Ch. divergens Navas 193 1 according to description and Smith's notes must be very similar if not identical; those we have agree possibly a little better with divergens.
Chrysopa bulbosa Navas 1926 will run in the key to Ch. in- fausta; however, there is nothing unusual about the basal joint of antennae in infausta; and infausta has the stripe on basal joint lateral, not dorsal, the pronotum not margined, etc.
148 Psyche Lbept .-uec.
Chrysopa cajensis Navas 1930 in table goes to yucatanensis and I consider it the same.
Chrysopa hieronyma Navas 191 7 seems to be tetrasticta. Chrysopa obesa Navas 1929. A broad bodied species with wholly green wings; may be a Nadiva but not IV. balboana. Chrysopa senior Navas 1927, wing 20 mm. long, is different from any I have.
Chrysopa morrisoni Navas 1914, veins all green, has dark dots or lines on vertex or pronotum, and thus readily separated from the all green veined species known to me. Chrysopa varicosa Navas 1914 is stated to have a dark lunule below each antenna, and peculiar modifications of certain vein- lets of the inner gradates; I have seen similar modifications in one species, but that species has no lunules on face, nor does it agree otherwise with the description of Navas, so it is probably also a distinct species.
Chrysopa lafoni Navas 1911, and Ch. nativa Navas 191 1, both from Costa Rica and fore wings 17 mm. long, do not fit anything I have seen.
Chrysopa sulcata, Ch. salleana, Ch. ceratica of Navas and Ch. explorata Hagen belong to Nodita; Ch. dolicharthra Navas is a Meleoma.
Chysopa externa var. marginata Navas 192 7, from Guate- mala, is described in one line and a half. The pronotum is marked on the anterior middle with dark red; I have not seen it. Chrysopa josephina Navas 1926 is said to have twelve joints of antennae black, and outer gradates bordered; it agrees fairly well with what I have as berlandi, but here the gradates are not bordered, but this is not always dependable. Chrysopa josephma Navas 1930, appears to be Ch. angusta Navas.
Chrysopa longicella Navas 1914; I identify this with Ch. bimaczdata McClendon, described from southern Texas; I have specimens from Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Canal Zone; except for minor details and size there is little to separate this from tolteca Bks. and so I have united them. Ch. valida from Baja California is closely related and with more material may prove to be the same.
194.5 I Chrysopidae of Central America 149 Chysopa lateralis Guerin 1843, I have not seen but placed in synopsis according to his description; it was from Vera Cruz, Mexico.
Chysopa nigricornis Burm. 1839
One from Durango, Mexico, March.
Chrysopa leptana Bks. 19 14
Type from Oaxaca, Mexico, another from Apatzingan, Mex- ico, 7 August.
Chrysopa gradata Navas 19 13
From Rosaria San Juancito, Honduras.
Chrysopa indicata Navas 19 14
From Jalapa, Vera Cruz, Mexico, La Campana, Pan., Sep- tember, and Santa Ana, Costa Rica, March. Chrysopa everes Bks. 1920
From Puerto Castilla, Honduras, 2 1 June, and Barro Colo- rado, Canal Zone, 10 to 13 November, 26 February, and 23 March.
Chrysopa aztecana Bks. 1903
Type from Tuxpan, Mexico, 9 May.
Chrysopa Mandi Navas 1923
From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone.
'Chrysopa claveri Navas 19 1 1
From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone; Cayuga, Guatemala, October.
Chrysopa incerta Bks. 1895
Types from El Taste, Baja California.
Chysopa sarta Bks. 19 14
Type from Orosi, Costa Rica.
Chrysopa tolteca Bks. 1901
Type from Tomellin, Oaxaca, Mexico, June; others Chava- rillo, Vera Cruz, Mexico, April; Cayuga, Guatemala, May; Chinandega, Guatemala, Gualan, Guatemala, 2 December; and Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, Tuxepec, Oaxaca, Mexico, November, and Tabernilla, Canal Zone, May. Normally there is but one branch from the third cubital cell to the hind margin.
Chrysopa valida Bks. 1895
Types from El Taste and San Jose del Cabo, Baja California, September. The name is not preoccupied by Hemerobius validus Erichson as the latter belongs in the genus Berk- mansus.
Chrysopa dampha Navas 192 7
Puerto Castilla, Honduras, 2 1 June.
Chrysopa arioles new name
From Honduras, June, and Piedras Negras, Peten, Guate- mala, April-May. This is the C. binaria Navas 1928, but he had already used the name in 1923 for a South American species.
Chrysopa mexicana Bks. 1901
From Hapan, Vera Cruz, Mexico, July, and San Pedro, Coa- . huila, Mexico, 22 August.
Chrysopa exotera Navas 1914
From Tuxpan, Mexico, 9 May, Guadalajara, Mexico, 14 Sept., 25 June, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 2 February, Rosario San Juancitio, Honduras, Panajachel, Guatemala, 20 March, and Santa Engracia, Mexico, 11 April.
Chrysopa divergens Navas 193 1
From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, 26 February, 13 March, 19 April.
Chrysopa tetrasticta Navas 19 14
From Moca, Guatalon, Guatemala, March-April. Chrysopa angusta Navas 19 14
From Rosario Mines, Honduras, 20 March.
Chrysopa yucatanensis Navas 192 9
From Puerto Cortez, Honduras, 18 March, and Barro Colo- rado, Canal Zone, 11 February, and Frijoles, Canal Zone, 18 February.
Chrysopa perjecta Bks. 1895
Types from El Taste, and San Lazaro, Baja California. Chrysopa f orreri Navas 19 14
From Mazatlan, Mexico.
Chrysopa parish! B ks. 19 13
From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, 15 July, 13 November, and El Volcan Chiriqui, Panama, 17 February.
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 151 Chrysopa facialis Bks. 190.5
Many from Durango, Mexico, in March, April, May, and June, also San Juan de Allende, Mexico, 15 March, Gomez Palacio, Durango, Mexico, May, San Pedro, Mexico, 14 De- cember, and Guanajuato, Mexico.
Chrysopa calif ornica Coq. 1890
From Tlahualito, Durango, Mexico, 26 August, and Guada- lajara, Mexico, 14 August.
Chrysopa comanche Bks. 1938
From San Jose de Guaymas, Mexico, 10 April, Sierra de 10s Burros, Coahuila, Mexico, 8 and 18 June, Guadalajara, Mexico, 2 5 June, Juarez, Mexico, 3 July, Panajachel, Guate- mala, 20 March, Puerto Castilla, Honduras, 4 April, and ~a Ceiba, Honduras.
Chrysopa adoina sp. nov.
Head pale, no marks on face; palpi unmarked; antennae black, except basal joint pale with a reddish stripe above; pronotum with a reddish stripe along each side, rest of thorax, abdomen and legs unmarked.
Wings with very pale venation, some costals and radials, cubitals and post cubitals brown in middle, rarely all over, gradates pale brown, not bordered, intermediates dark at lower end, branches of radial sector not dark anywhere; in hind wings the gradates are faintly dark.
Pronotum a little broader behind than long, narrowed toward front. Fore wings have three or four inner, seven outer gradates, parallel and near each other; branches of radial sector scarcely bent at inner gradates; eleven radials; third cubital cell longer than second, divisory cell long, slender and narrow toward tip, base slightly oblique, six cubitals beyond; costal area not as broad as postcubital, but about as broad as cubital, radial area plainly a little broader than postcubital area, the radial sector, however, but little curved. In hind wings ten radials, seven cubitals, only one or two inner, and six outer gradates, parallel, and near each other.
Length of fore wing 12 mm., width 4 mm.
Two taken at quarantine, one at New Orleans from Mexico, 4 Febr. 1936, and the other at Charleston from Honduras,
26 June, 1931, apparently associated with bananas. Type U.S.N.M., paratype M.C.Z. 25643. Differs from berlandi as shown in table; it has much the appearance of Ch. cubam, but it is larger, the pronoturn a little longer, sides more sloping for- ward, and the costal area is proportionally a little broader. Chrysopa annotaria sp. nov.
Face pale, a red-brown stripe on cheeks, no other marks; palpi deep black; antenn~e pale at first, but soon brownish, not longer than wings, basal joint with a red line on outer side and above is a short reddish line, not reaching either end (probably absent in some specimens); vertex with a red dot each side behind near eye; pronoturn pale, in front each side suffused with reddish, broader than long; rest of thorax pale; abdomen mostly black above. Fore wings with gradates dark, and the inner ones bordered with brown; costals and radials rather dark at anterior ends, a few other veins toward base partly dark, last cubital dark, and the marginal forkings partly dark. Hind wings with pale venation, almost no veins darkened, some of the gradates faintly in certain views; stigma greenish. In fore wing six inner and outer gradates, the outer row parallel to outer margin, the inner row, arising from near penultimate cubital, curves upward toward the radial sector; the second veinlet in this gradate row has chitinous dots or lines close by in the membrane and is more broadly bordered than the others; the branches of the radial sector are much bent at the inner gradates; six cubital cross-veins beyond the divisory '
cell, latter ends much beyond the cross-vein above; third cu- bit$ cell hardly as long as second, and no broader; subcostal stigma? area with two or three cross-veins. Costal area at broadest as broad as postcubital area, and broader than the ra- dial area, latter, at broadest, about twice as broad as cubital area. In hind wings the gradates are also far apart, inner of five, outer of six, but not very divergent.
Length of fore wing 14 mm., width 5 mm.
From Boquete, Chiriqui Province, Panama, 10 May (Fair- child). Type M.C.Z. no. 25645.
Chrysupa varicosa Navas has, according to description and Smith's notes, a very similar wing, with the peculiarities of the inner gradates, but the face has a reddish brown lunule under each antennae, and no dark line on basal joint of antennae. Ck.
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 153 sanguinea Navas has a line on antennae, but palpi pale, and a line behind the antennae. Other species with line on basal an- tennal joint have been seen, and are in the synoptic key. Chrysopa batesi sp. nov.
Head pale; a broad red stripe on each side covering cheeks and extending inward and upward on inner side of eye, past the antenna, and broadly onto sides of vertex; palpi pale; antennae pale, basal joint with a rather broad outer reddish stripe; pro- notum much broader than long, sides parallel, two red spots half way from center to side margin; mesonotum with a red mark each side on anterior lobe, extending back along middle; abdomen with aorow of red marks each side above. Fore wings with the gradates wholly dark; origin of radial sector, radials almost wholly, and some costals at lower ends dark; stigma pale yellowish. In hind wings the gradates slightly dark. In fore wings four or five inner and seven outer gradates, outer row parallel to margin, inner row plainly divergent; six cubitals beyond the divisory cell, latter ends much beyond the cross-vein; third cubital cell as long as second, broader. In the subcostal stigma1 area two or three cross-veins; hairs on veins rather short; branches of radial sector slightly bent at inner gradates; costal area at broadest is equal to the radial and also to postcubital area, latter about a third broader than cubital. In hind wings four inner and- five outer gradates, not quite parallel, and the inner series nearer to the radial sector. Length fore wing 12 mm., width 4.5 mm.
From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, 9 October (M. Bates). Type M.C.Z. no. 25646.
Agrees partly with bouvieri and divergens; but neither have stripe on basal joint of antenna, and neither have extensive red marks on head.
Chrysopa brevihirta sp. nov.
Head pale, a faint reddish mark between antennae and also a faint reddish suffusion on the vertex just back of each antenna, no mark on cheeks; palpi and antennae pale yellowish, un- marked; pronotum pale, with a red stripe each side, rest of thorax, abdomen, and legs pale, unmarked. Fore wings with the gradates brown, radials and costals, and a few other cross-
154 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
veins toward base paler brown; in hind wings the gradates only faintly brown.
Pronotum broader behind than long in middle, sides sloping forwards. In fore wing the costal area at broadest is not nearly as wide as the radial area, latter a little broader than post- cubital area, which is scarcely wider than the cubital area; three or four inner gradates, seven or eight outer ones, in paral- lel series, the inner row nearer to outer than outer to the margin, inner arising not far before the last cubital cross-vein; six cubitals, beyond divisory, latter ending beyond the cross-vein above; the third cubital cell a little longer than the second, and plainly broader ; twelve radial cross-veins ; the costal stigma1 area hardly one half as broad as the subcostal area, and the latter with six or seven cross-veins. Hair on Veins very short, on the broadest costal cells the hair is not one fourth the width of the cell; although several of the costal cells toward base are unusually broad; there are the usual seven cross-veins before the origin of the radial sector.
In hind wings three or four inner and seven outer gradates, parallel, and near together.
Length of fore wing 14 mm., width 5 mm.
From Tuxpan, Mexico, 9 September f McClendon coll. ) . Type M.C.Z. no. 25649.
Chrysopa caligata sp. nov.
Head pale, unmarked; palpi pale ; antennae longer than fore wings, pale, first joint with a red stripe above; pronotum broader than long in middle; narrowed near front a red stripe each side, not quite on margin; rest of thorax and abdomen pale, unmarked.
Fore wings with some costals, radial, cubitals, and branches of cubitus dark in middle, or almost wholly dark; gradates plainly dark brown ; some marginal forkings dark; stigma pale ; in hind wings outer gradates dark. In fore wings the radial area is much broader than the costal area and as broad as the post- cubital area, latter about as broad as the costal area; six cubitals beyond divisory cell, latter ends plainly beyond cross-vein above; three or four inner, and seven or eight outer gradates, inner close to and parallel to the outer row; third cubital cell as long as second; branches of radial sector scarcely bent at inner gradates; hair of moderate length. In hind wings two or
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 155 three inner and six or seven outer gradates, in parallel rows. Subcostal stigma1 area rather broader than costal and with five cross-veins.
Length of fore wing 12 to 13 mm., width 4.2 to 4.5 mm. From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone (Banks), and Puerto Ca- bello, Panama, 11 June (Englehart). Type M.C.Z. no. 25648; paratype, Barro Colorado, C. Z., 1 1 March (A.M.N.H.) . Pos- sibly close to Ch. sanguinea Navas, but nothing is said of red on pronotum, and there is a mark on cheek (not in caligata) . One from Guatemala, August (U.S.N.M.) is probably the same. Chrysopa everina sp. nov.
Similar to Ch. everes; black antennee beyotd second joint, be- coming paler beyond middle; cheeks, palpi, basal antenna1 joint, all unmarked; nor even a red dot by eyes on the vertex, pro- notum, thorax, abdomen, legs all pale. Wings with the gradates in fore wings dark brown, in hind wings more faintly brown; scarcely any other veins dark in either wings, some of radials a darker green in middle; stigma only faintly darker. Antennae shorter than wings; pronotum much broader than long, sides parallel, front margin convex, a distinct median groove in the part behind the transverse furrow.
Wings moderately broad, hind wings acute at tip. In fore wings the costal area at widest is as broad as the postcubital area, and almost equal to the radial area; the cubital area about three fourths as wide as the postcubital; inner gradates five, outer seven, inner row plainly a little divergent from the outer and arising from near the penultimate cubital cross-vein, last three of inner series nearer to radial sector than to the outer row; six cubital cross-veins beyond the divisory cell, latter ends beyond the cross-vein above; third cubital cell as long as second and broader. '51n hind wings the gradates are also rather far apart, three or four inner, and five or six outer ones. Length of fore wing 11.5 mm., width 4.5 mm. From Lancetilla, Tela, Honduras, 4 May (M. Bates). Type M.C.Z. no. 25644.
Readily separated from everes by the more widely separated gradates.
Chrysopa fairchildi sp. nov.
Head, palpi, and antennae pale, without marks, vertex each side by eye faintly suffused with rufous; pronotum, thorax,
156 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
abdomen, and legs pale, unmarked; wings with greenish vena- tion, in fore wings the gradates wholly dark; some of the costals in middle, some branches of cubitus, the last few cubitals, and radials more or less, dark; in hind wings the gradates less plainly dark.
The antennae shorter than wings; pronotum broader behind than long in middle, sides sloping toward front. Wings moderately broad, hind wings acute at tip; in fore wings five inner, seven outer gradates, in parallel rows, the inner much nearer to outer than outer row to margin, the inner row arising nearer to the last cubital cross-vein than to the penulti- mate. Costal areaat widest not equal to radial area, the latter equal to the postcubital area, and this last about one and a half times broader than the cubital area; six cubital cross-veins beyond divisory cell, the latter ending beyond the cross-vein above; the third cubital cell as long as the second and a little broader; branches of radial sector but little bent at inner gra- dates; in hind wing two to three inner and five outer gradates, parallel and near each other.
Length of fore wing 12 mm., width 4.3 mm. From Juan Mina, Rio Chagres, Canal Zone, 11 April (G. B. Fairchild). Type M.C.Z. no. 2 5650.
Chrysopa infausta sp. nov.
Body pale, no mark on face nor cheeks; palpi pale; antennae pale, the first joint with a red stripe on outer side, and the sec- ond joint partly reddish; pronotum with a narrow red line on each side margin; rest of thorax, the abdomen and legs all pale, unmarked.
Fore wings with nearly all cross-veins wholly or partly dark, and both gradate series bordered with dark, branches from radial sector and from cubitus mostly pale, marginal forkings dark ; stigma pale yellowish.
Wings rather narrow; fore wings almost and hind wings plainly acute at tips. In fore wings the costal area at broadest not nearly as broad as the radial area which is equal to the postcubital area, the latter one third broader than the cubital area; six cross-veins beyond the divisory cell, latter ends well beyond the cross-vein above; four or five inner, six outer gra- dates, outer parallel to outer margin, inner somewhat divergent from outer, last one or two of inner series nearer to outer than
1945 1 Chrysopidae of Central America 157 the others; branches of radial sector not at all bent at inner gradates; third cubital cell about as long as second, the divisory cell a little more than one half its length; the subcostal area of stigma plainly broader than the costal part and with three cross-veins. In hind wings three inner and five outer gradates, not parallel.
Pronoturn broader than long, sides parallel, but narrowed near front.
Fore wings 10.5 mm. long; 3.5 mm. wide.
From Hamburg Farm, Costa Rica, April (C. W. Dodge). Type M.C.Z. no. 25647.
Of the size and general appearance of Ch. gradata and Ch. longicella; gradata has black antennae, dark mark on cheeks, and gradates parallel. Ch. longicella has the palpi partly black, the gradates not bordered, and the rows nearer each other, and parallel. Ch. infausta is very similar to bimaculata, but differs in pale palpi and the bordered gradates. Key to Species of Nodita
1. Antennae beyond second joint wholly black, pronotum showing transverse groove . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Antennae if dark only on basal third or less, or only beneath 3 2. Outer part of hind marginal vein of hind wings plainly brown; palpi pale; basal joint of antenna with reddish stripe . panamana
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Outer part of hind marginal vein of hind wing not brown, palpi marked with dark; basal joint of antennae not plainly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3. Very large species, fore wings about 20 mm. long or longer; hind margin of hind wings often with a distinct brown shade or at least the marginal vein brown . . . . . . 4 Smaller; hind margin of hind wings not brown . . . . 8 4. Pronotum with a row of reddish spots or a stripe much before side margin, pronotum longer than broad . . . . 5 If red on pronoturn it is close to side margin, and pronotum about as broad as long . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 5. Pronotum with a row of red spots each side . Zuctuosa Pronotum with a stripe each side . . . . . . . egregia
158 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
6. Radial sector dark for a space before the stigma, usually outer gradates only dark . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
Radial sector not partly dark, both rows of gradates dark . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . singularis 7. Divisory veinlet ends on end of cell as in Leucochrysa; pronotum with a reddish spot each side near middle of length allonewa
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Divisory veinlet normal for Nodita; pronotum with a stripe each side . . . . . . . . . . . . . . maronica 8. Radial sector in fore or hind wings black in part near . . . . . . stigma, at least branches each side black 9
Radial sector not black in part . . . . . . . . . 15 9. Palpi partly black; often a dark or reddish band across lower part of face, or a spot on each side . . . . . . 10
Palpi pale; if a band on face it is just below antennae . . 14 10. Tip of hind wings dark; usually some outer gradates bordered with dark . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Tip of hind wings not dark; outer gradates not bordered 12 11. Inner gradates dark; most cross-veins dark; basal part of antennae below with dark marks . . . . . . orthones Inner gradates partly pale ; many cross-veins pale ; basal part of antennae not dark below, some cross-veins bordered askanes
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12. Antennae black about one third way out beyond second joint; marginal forks not wholly dark . . . . . navasi Antennae at most dark for a short distance below . . . 13 13. Radial sector in both wings partly black; end of third cubital cell very oblique; marginal forks almost wholly black lancala
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Radial sector in hind wings only partly dark; end of third cubital cell scarcely oblique; marginal forks dark only at base; wings narrower . . . . . . . . . . . . cancella 14. A red spot each side near middle of face . pallescens No such spots . . . . . . . . . . . . mexicana 15. Hind wings much marked with dark, the tips black postica
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Hind wings little if any marked with dark . . . . . 16 16. Basal joint of antennae nearly wholly dark above, and often on outer side; usually several of the gradates bordered;
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 159 palpi pale; pronotum hardly longer than broad, and with a reddish line on side . . . . . . . . . . . . cortezi Basal joint at most with one or two stripes . . . . . 17 17. One or two dark or reddish bands across face; vertex with an annulate red line . . . . . . . . . . . 18 No bands across face, at most a spot each side . . . . 20 18. Two stripes on basal joint of antennas, one inner, one above; pronotum plainly longer than broad, with two dark spots each side . . . . . . . . . Leucochrysa duarte Basal joint with but one dark stripe . . . . . . . 19 19. One dark band across face, basal part of antennae dark for a few joints beyond the second . . . . . . maculata Two reddish bands across face and upper clypeus, basal part of antennae not black; vertex with some dark transverse marks more or less distinct . . . . . . . . . . . . serrei 20. Several joints of antennae beyond the second with a dark mark beneath; vertex with an angulate red line in front; palpi pale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . antennata No joints marked beneath with dark on antennae . . . 2 1 21. Basal joint of antenna with a reddish or dark stripe, several of the outer gradates bordered
. . . . . . . 2 2
Basal joint of antenna without a distinct stripe, but some- times wholly pale rufous; outer gradates not so plainly bor- dered. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lcertes 22. Palpi pale, unmarked . . . . . . . . punctata . Palpi largely dark . . . . . . . . . . . salleana Nodita explorator Hagen 1861, type appears to be lost; agrees in some ways with N. antennata, but said to have a large dark spot on face.
Chrysopa sulcata Navas 192 1, according to Smith notes is a Nodita; in the synopsis it will run to duarte from which it dif- fers in having the pronotum broader than long. Nodita campioni Navas 1914, is related to askanes, but the latter has a band across lower part of face at clypeal border, inner gradates not dark, and pronotal stripes have an inward projection.
Nodita fuscinervis Navas 1914, a rather large species, fore wing 19 mm. long, is about size of pallescens, but latter has the antennse pale at base, no veins near wing base black, face dif- ferently marked.
Nodita nevermanni Navas 1928, is said to have basal an- tennal joint dark above which would thus fit cortezi, but the figure shows the pronotum shorter.
Nodita salleana Navas 191 1 (Chrysopa). It is put in the synopsis through description and Smith notes. Nodita antica Navas 1913 will run out to N. punctata, but from figure is a Leucochrysa. Nodita lateralis Navas 1913 also goes to N. punctata in table/but may be different. Nodita superior Navas 1913 is a rather large species, with two curved marks on vertex; I have not seen it. Nodita zapotina Navas 1913 seems to agree well with N. antennata.
Nodita centralis Navas 1913 may be luctuosa or near it, but the description does not fully agree.
Nodita ceratica Navas 1911 (Chrysopa) is a small species with several joints of antennae near base dark; I cannot match it with any I have here.
Nodita alternata Navas 1913 may be the same as N. mexi- cana Bks.
Nodita indiga Navas 1928. Probably related to what I de- scribed as N. askanes, but no mention of dark area on radial sector, and over outer gradates.
Nodita postica Navas 19 13 seems to be close to radiosa Gerst. or the same; I have not seen N. radiosa from Central America. RECORDS
Nodita luctuosa Bks. 19 14
Type from Orosi, Costa Rica.
Nodita egregria Navas 19 13
From El Valle, Cocle Prov., Panama, 20 May. Nodita rnaronica Navas 19 15
From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone 10-13 November and 3 January. Described from French Guiana.
1945 I ' Chysopidae of Central America 161 Nodita rarnosa ? Navas 19 17a
From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, 20 July, 2 August; both specimens have palpi marked with black and may be new. Nodita maculata Navas 192 8
From Boquete, Chiriqui, Panama, 10 May, and El Volcan Chiriqui, 30 April.
Nodita singularis Navas 19 13
One from El Cermeno, Panama, April-May, agrees well with the description.
Nodita caucella Bks. 1910.
From El Cermeno, Panama, April-May, and Panama City, Panama, 4 May. Described from Colombia.
Nodita antennata Bks. 1915
Type from Tuxpan, Mexico, 4 May.
Nodita rnexicana Bks. 1900
From Cavarillo, Vera Cruz, Mexico, Lancetilla, Honduras; and Taboga Island, Panama, 10 June.
Nodita punctata Bks. 1903
Type from Guatemala; others, Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, November ; and Corozal, Panama, 12 February. Nodita cortezi Navas 1913
The specimens which agree with the description and figure have a dark brown spot below the base of each antennae, not mentioned by Navas or Smith, but they could be overlooked. AT. calverti Bks. 1914a is the same species, published a few months later. Specimens from Pedregoso, Costa Rica, Feb- ruary; La Campina, Panama, September, El Cermeno, Pan- ama, April to May, and Costa Rica. N. nevermanni Navas 1928 may be the same species.
Nodita navasi Kimmins 1940
Kimmins lately renamed the second Nodita alternata 1914 of Navas; specimens from Lancetilla, Honduras. Nodita serrei Navas 192 3
From El Cermeno, Panama, April to May.
Nodita alloneura sp. nov.
In general structure close to N. maronica, but has the divisory cell as in Leucochrysa. Markings also similar, the radial sector
162 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
is black for some distance before stigma and branches each side black for a short distance; the marginal forks are wholly brown, and the hind margin of hind wings is brown; both rows of gra- dates pale. Stigma yellowish, with a prominent black spot at base. There are no marks on head, and antennae pale. The
pronotum is shorter than in maronica, being plainly broader. behind than long in middle; there is a red spot near margin at about middle of length; lateral lobes of mesonotum with a small red spot in front; abdomen with a reddish spot each side on each segment, forming a row close to the median line. The fore wings are nearly as broad as in maronica; the radial sector strongly curved, thi radial area at widest much broader than the costal area; the inner gradates of twelve or thirteen extending somewhat basally; the outer gradates probably of twelve or more, the more basal ones being perfectly continuous with the medius, the two rows being more divergent and further apart than in maronica. There are nineteen radials and eight cubital cross-veins beyond the third cubital cell. In hind wing the radial sector is also black before stigma, other veins pale; the gradates, eight to ten, are more nearly parallel than in tore wing.
Length of fore wing 20 mm., width 7.5 mm. One from Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, 2 December (M. Bates coll.). Type M.C.Z. no. 25652.
Nodita askanes sp. nov.
Face with a reddish spot each side between the eye and upper corner of clypeus; maxillary palpi largely black; antennae pale, basal joint with a rather broad reddish stripe on outer side, second joint with a dark mark, six to ten joints beyond marked with black beneath; vertex with a reddish spot each side just above outer base of antennae; pronotum with a moderately broad red stripe each side, at about middle there is a projection inward (somewhat like indigo), mesonotum usually has a red- dish dot each side, and sometimes one over base of fore wings; abdomen with two large black spots above, one toward base, other toward tip; legs pale, unmarked.
Fore wings with radial sector more or less plainly black near the stigma, and two or three branches each side are black, and some of them bordered near the sector; origin of radial sector, last cubital cross-vein, first one or two of outer gradates also
1945 I Chrysopidae of Central America 163 bordered with brown; outer gradates and some of the inner row, most of the marginal forks at base and sometimes the last two or three of the branches of cubitus are brown; some of the costals, radials, and cubitals are usually partly brown; stigma brown at base. In hind wings the cross-veins and gradates mostly pale, sometimes one or two of the marginal forks dark, the radial sector is faintly dark toward the stigma and latter brown at base; the tip of wing has a prominent brown spot.
The pronotum is broader behind than long and with a median depressed line. In the fore wings the costal area (at broadest) is about as wide as the postcubital area, not as broad as the radial area; basal side of divisory cell moderately oblique and about one half to two fifths of the outer side; seven cubitals beyond divisory, all the cells longer than high; gradates usu- ally five or six in each row, the rows parallel, but not very near each other, the branches of radial sector much bent at inner gradates; several cross-veins in subcostal stigma1 area, many in costal area.
In hind wings usually four or five inner, five or six outer gradates, nearly parallel, seven cubital cross-veins. Length fore wing 13 mm., width 4.5 mm.
From Moca, Gautalon, Gutemala, March, April, 1000 m. (Bequaert), old specimen "Guatemala," and Subirana, Yoro, Honduras, 7 March (Stadelman). Type M.C.Z. no. 25654. Nodita laertes sp. nov.
Face with a small reddish spot below each antenna, and not far from inner edge of eye (sometimes obscured by discolora- tion); palpi pale; vertex with a small spot or two short fine divergent lines of red in front, or sometimes absent; antennae pale, basal joint without stripe, but sometimes more or less wholly rufous above; no dark dots on under side of antennae toward base; pronotum with a short stripe or line near middle each side, sometimes reaching front; mesonotum usually brown on the lateral lobes and extending slightly over base of wing; the front of anterior lobe usually marked with reddish or dark; abdomen with two large dark spots above; legs pale. Fore wings with gradates and last one or two cubitals wholly dark, not bordered; origin of radial sector, marginal forks at base, and many cross-veins at one or both ends dark; stigma
164 Psyche [Septa-Dec.
with a prominent dark brown spot at base. In hind wings the venation is mostly pale, the outer gradates dark. Pronotum hardly as long as broad behind, narrowed toward front, depressed along middle. Fore wings rather broad and blunt toward tip; ten or eleven radial cross-veins, four to six inner and five to seven outer gradates, nearly parallel; the inner gradates usually arising beyond the penultimate cubital cross- vein; the branches of radial sector not much bent by the inner gradates; the costal area almost as broad as the postcubital, the radial area broader than either; in hind wings seven cu- bital cross-veins, about eight radials, gradates with usually four in each row, parallel, but rather widely separated. Length of fore wing 10 to 11.5 mm., width 4 to 4.5 mm. Several from Juan Mina, Rio Chagres, Canal Zone, 1 1, 12 April (Fairchild coll.) . Type M.C.Z. no. 2 5 65 6. N. ceratica, indiga, and championi have dark dots on under side of antennae toward base, but are otherwise somewhat related. Nodita orthones sp. nov.
Face with a black spot under each antenna, and another in middle below them, maxillary palpi mostly dark, the depression of vertex dark each side; antennae pale, basal joint rather slen- der, with a reddish streak on outer part above, not a definite stripe, rest of antennae wholly pale; pronotum with a reddish stripe each side, rather broad in front, middle of pronotum de- pressed and dark (probably discolored) meso- and metanotum mostly dark, extending out on base of wings; abdomen without definite dark spots; legs pale.
Fore wings with the radial sector dark for quite a long dis- tance; gradates black, outer ones and base of radial sector bor- dered; nearly all other cross-veins and marginal forks wholly dark brown, a few of radials not wholly dark, the intermediates and branches of radial sector to the inner gradates dark, be- tween the gradates series the branches are mostly pale; stigma with a rather pale brown spot at base. In hind wings some of the costals, the gradates, the marginal forks, and the last few radials are dark, the radial sector is plainly dark for a short distance; the tip of wing and the base of stigma are brown. The pronotum is nearly as long as broad behind, the median depression prominent, no transverse groove. The fore wing has the costal area rather narrow, not as broad
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 165 as the postcubital area, and the latter not nearly as broad as the radial area; base of divisory cell about two thirds of outer side, and moderately oblique, tip of third cubital cell plainly oblique, seven cubitals beyond the divisory, the cells mostly longer than broad; a few cross-veins in subcostal stigma1 area, many in the costal area, five inner and six outer gradates, only silghtly divergent, branches of radial sector much bent at inner gradates. In hind wing four gradates in each series, rows slightly divergent, seven cubital cross-veins. . Length of fore wing 13 mm., width 4.7 mm. One from Juan Mina, Rio Chagres, Canal Zone, 12 April (Fairchild). Type M.C.Z. no. 25655.
Nodita pallescens sp. nov.
Face with a rounded red spot on each side below antenna; palpi pale; front of vertex with an angulate red line across; antennae pale, the basal joint with a faint reddish spot at outer tip, no distinct stripe; pronotum with a faint line each side, on the posterior partis a dark line on each side, its front end bent toward the middle; meso- and metanotum greenish, unmarked. Abdomen pale, slightly darker at ends of segments; legs pale, very slender.
In the wings the veins are very fine; in fore wings the gra- dates are mostly dark (not black), the marginal forks also, the radial sector at base and toward stigma a rather long stretch dark; nearly all the cross-veins are partly dark, usually only in middle. In the hind wings the radial sector and two or three radial cross-veins dark near stigma; the gradates are scarcely darkened, the outer ones more plainly so; the stigma is not plainly brown at base, but the subcostal vein there is black. The pronotum is about as long as broad behind, near front much narrowed.
The wings are long and slender; in the fore wings the costal area is almost as wide as the post-cubital, the radial area broader than either; the third cubital cell is scarcely narrower at base than at the oblique tip; the divisory cell ends far beyond the cross-vein above, the base quite oblique and but little more than one half of the outer side, seven or eight cubitals beyond; eight inner and nine outer gradates, the rows slightly divergent, branches of radial sector strongly bent by inner gradates, and more than usual by the outer series; fifteen radial cross-veins;
166 Psyche Kept.-Dec.
subcostal stigmal area with only a few cross-veins, costal, area densely veined. In hind wings four or five inner and six outer gradates, nearly parallel, but not very near each other; eight cubital cross-veins, twelve or thirteen radials. Length of fore wing 18.5 mm., width 6 mm. One from San Jose, Guatemala, February 1905 (Baker). Type M.C.Z. no. 25651.
Nodita panamana sp. nov.
Head pale, a reddish spot or line under each eye; palpi pale; first three joints of antennae pale, beyond deep black, basal joint with a reddish stripe above. Thorax pale; pronotum with red stripe each side; lateral lobes of mesonotum often with a dark dot toward front; abdomen pale, unmarked; legs pale. Fore wings with long yellowish brown stigma, anterior end darker; gradates and outer marginal forks wholly dark, costals dark at one or both ends, radials and some others dark in mid- dle or at one end; radial sector toward stigma dark for some distance, and dark at origin. In hind wings the radial sector is also dark for a space, the outer gradates and the outer part of marginal vein dark brown.
Pronotum almost as long as broad behind, narrowed some- what toward front.
In fore wings the costal area at broadest is hardly as broad as the postcubital, the radial area much broader than either; base of divisory cell but little oblique, only about one half length of outer side which is curved; usually six or seven inner and eight outer gradates, not quite parallel, branches of radial sector much bent by the inner gradates; third cubital cell nearly as broad at base as at tip which is oblique, other cubital cells longer than broad, seven cubital cross-veins beyond the divisory; in subcostal stigmal area are a few cross-veins, many in costal area.
In hind wings about five or six inner and seven outer gra- dates, in slightly divergent rows, and rather further apart than in fore wing; seven cubital cross-veins; the radial area is broader than the postcubital.
Length of fore wing 15 mm., width 5 mm.
Many specimens (alcoholic) from La Campana, Sept., and El Cermeno, April, May, June, both Panama (Zetek coll.). Type in U.S.N.M. Paratypes there and in M.C.Z. no. 2 5659.
1945 I Chrysopidae of Central America 167 Key to Species of Leucochrysa
1. Fore wings about 20 mm. long or more . . . . . 2 Forewingsabout 15 to 17 mm. long . . . . . . . 6 Fore wings about 12 to 13 mm. long, divisory vein usually ends on medius before end of cell . . . . . . . . . 7 2. Fore wing with a dark streak or umbra behind the rhegma . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . dolichocera No such streak . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3. In fore wing a cell behind third cubital cell is opaque, sometimes also opaque above it . . . . . . . . clara No such opaque cell . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4. Radial sector much curved and black for a space before the stigma . . . . . . . . . . . Nodita allonez~ra Radial sector only slightly curved and not black toward stigma. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 5. Pronotum plainly longer than broad behind, and tapering forwards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . varia Pronotum about as broad behind as long in middle, less taper- ing in front . . . . . . . . . . . . . . pretiosa 6. Base of radial sector covered by a large dark spot; inner gradates not extended basally . . . . . . . . . notha Base of divisory cell covered by a black mark; inner gradates extended basally . . . . . . . . . . . . erminea 7. Two spots each side on margin of pronotum, one reddish, one nearly black; a reddish spot under each eye; basal joint of antennae with reddish stripe above; outer gradates bordered . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . duarte A marginal line on pronotum; no spot under eye; basal an- tennal joint reddish on outer side . . . . . . . antica Leucochrysa va~iata Navas 19 13 and L. angradi Navas 19 1 1 I presume are the same as pretiosa Bks. 1910, at least I do not know how to separate them. L. negata Navas 19 13 appears to be different from any I have seen, although said to be similar to va~iata. L. delicata Navas 1925,I think is surely pretiosa. Leucochrysa clara McLachl. 1867
From Bugaba, Panama and El Volcan Chiriqui, 24 February. L. scioptera Navas 19 13 is the same species.
168 Psyche [Sept .-Dec.
Leucochrysa va~ia Schneider 185 1
Recorded from the region by Navas, but probably pretiosa. Leucochrysa pretiosa Bks. 19 10
From Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, January, 15, 2 2, 2 5 July, December; El Cermeno, Panama, April, May; La Campana, Panama, September, Cayuga, Guatemala, June; Volcan Sta. Marta, Guatemala, June; Limon, Costa Rica, 24 May; and Aka Vera Paz, Guatemala, 24 April. In pretiosa the inner gradates are more nearly parallel to the outer and do not extend up so near to the radial sector as in varia. Also in pretiosa the divisory cell has the outer side little longer than basal side; in varia the basal side is usually much shorter, but there is variation; the sure way to separate them is by the longer pronotum of varia. From the Hagen collection we have a type or cotype of varia.
Leucochrysa notha Navas 1913 is not a Nodita, but I have not seen it in my material.
Leucochrysa dolichocera Navas 1913 I have not seen, but is evidently related to the South American group of longicomis and so placed in synopsis.
Leucochrysa vdnerata Navas 19 14 from Guatemala; probably related to pretiosa.
Leucochrysa duarte sp. nov.
Face with a reddish spot each side near eye (not below), the two connected by a faint line; last joint of maxillary palpi mostly black; a dark spot just above base of antennae, basal joint of antennae blotched with reddish, on the outer side nearly forming a stripe, second joint reddish, third joint black in front, beyond wholly pale;' pronotum with two somewhat rounded reddish spots on each side margin, one at anterior end, very dark, other at about middle; a small reddish spot on each lateral corner of the anterior lobe of the mesonoturn, a reddish and blackish mark on base of each wing, scarcely extending over the lateral lobes, rest of thorax pale yellowish; abdomen pale, with three large black spots above, one near base, the others on adjoining segments near tip; legs pale. Fore wings with a dark spot over base of radial sector, and the outer gradates black and plainly margined with brown, also
19451 Chrysopidae of Central America 169 over the last cubital, and the bases of marginal forks; inner gradates dark, one or two of them faintly margined; the stigma with a large dark spot at base, and behind are three or four dark radials, faintly margined; the cubital cross-veins are also dark and some slightly bordered; many costals wholly or partly brown. In the hind wings the outer gradates faintly dark; the stigma with a large brown spot, and behind one or two radials dark. The pronotum is plainly longer than broad, the sides parallel. In the fore wings .there are eleven radials, five or six outer and five inner gradates, not parallel, rather wide apart, the inner row nearer to radial sector than to the outer row, latter rather close to outer margin; branches of radial sector much bent at inner gradates; veins only sparsely haired; di- visory cell long, tip sharp-pointed and on one wing almost reaches the end of cell, base slightly oblique, hardly one half of outer side, seven cross-veins beyond; costal area nearly as wide as post-cubital, but the radial area still broader (at its broadest); cubital area not one half of postcubital. In the
hind wings the postcubital area is not quite as broad as the radial; four inner, five outer gradates, nearly parallel, but well separated ; six cubitals, eight radial cross-veins. Length of fore wing 11 mm., width 3.8 mm. One from Pedrogoso, Costa Rica, 2 100 ft., February, (Rounds coll.). Type M.C.Z. no. 25658.
Differs from Nodita cortezi in longer pronotum, with two rounded spots each side (instead of one line) ; the reddish (in- stead of brown) spots below antennae, and further down; in the partly black palpi; and the basal joint of antennae not so much dark; and by the slightly curved radial sector belongs in Leuco- chrysa. From Leucochrysa notha and antica Navas it is sepa- rated by the spots on face and side of pronotum; the stripe on basal joint of antenna on upper (not outer) side; the palpi are marked with dark, and the inner gradates run up closer to the radial sector.
Leucochrysa erminea sp. nov.
Face without definite marks, except dark spot under each eye; palpi pale, marked with dark; antennae very long, pale, basal joint and second dark above, a faint dark mark over two more joints; pronotum broader than long, sides dark; meso- notum dark over base of fore wings, metanotum dark in front,
170 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
scutellum pale; abdomen with two segments toward tip reddish above. Fore wings with dark spot over the short vein below divisory cell, more over base of radial sector; dark spot at base of stigma, another over last cubital cross-vein, one or two cross-veins before also brown, outer gradates brown, also base of outer forks, few cross-veins dark at one end, mostly pale. In hind wings the stigma dark at base, veins mostly pale, outer gradates partly dark.
In fore wings the costal area fully equal to radial area in width; fifteen radials, eight cubitals beyond third cubital cell, eight or nine inner gradates, six outer ones, inner row extended basally, four cubital cross-veins beyond its origin, slightly di- vergent from outer row. In hind wing eight cubital cross-veins, seven inner and six outer gradates, inner row extended basally a little.
Fore wing 15.5 mm. long, 5.5 mm. wide.
One from Barro Colorado, Canal Zone, August (F. H. Hull). Type M.C.Z. no. 25657.
I consider my AZZochrysa titan as belonging to this genus. In the genotype from Colombia Navas shows an intermediate row of gradates; in titan the row is broken, two in one wing, four in other; however, it agrees with Neula in many other points. The radial area is broadest toward base (not in middle as in Nodita) ; and at middle (half way from origin to stigma) the radial sector is much nearer to radius than to medius. The costal area is not as broad as the radial area; the antennae are very long; it differs from Leucochrysa chiefly in having the radial sector more sinuous.
Neula titan B ks. 19 1 5
I have seen only the type.
The palpi are partly black; the pronoturn broad, the trans- verse groove near the hind border, in front of groove there is a slight elevation. The postcubital area about twice as broad as the cubital. The third cubital cell has one branch toward the margin and it soon forks, one part running into the fork of first anal vein, the other reaching the hind margin, alike in both fore wings. There are 20 to 22 radials, 13 to 14 inner gradates,
1945 I Chrysopidae of Central America 171 12 to 13 outer, the rows far apart and not parallel, giving room for the middle row; seven intermediates; ten cubitals beyond the third cubital cell. In hind wing eleven gradates in each row, rows fairly parallel; about nine or ten cubitals. The legs are rather stout, the hind tibia about three and a half times the length of the hind tarsus; front tibia hardly more than twice as long as tarsus.
Leimon, Costa Rica, 24 May (Schaus).
Chrysopodes sallei sp. nov.
Body and appendages pale, palpi pale; basal joint of antenna with two red brown stripes, one on outer side and one above; no mark on cheeks, pronotum with a red brown stripe each side; abdomen unmarked.
In the fore wings some of the costals, most of the radials, three intermediates, the gradates, all of the cubitals, and some of the branches of the cubitus are dark; stigma but little marked. Pronotum a little broader behind than long in middle, sides parallel to near front and then much narrowed; the trans- verse groove close to the hind ridge.
Wings moderately slender, tips in a point, hair of moderate length. In fore wings the costal area is not as broad as radial, the latter a little broader than the postcubital, and this much broader than the cubital area; eleven radials, five cubitals be- yond the third cubital cell, all but the last one oblique; divisory veinlet parallel to the medius, latter slopes straight to its mar- ginal fork; four inner and seven outer gradates, the rows par- allel and near each other, the inner very far from radial sector. In hind wings two or three inner and four outer gradates, also parallel and near each other, seven cubital cross-veins. Length of fore wing 14 mm., width 4.8 mm. One labeled "Mexique Salle" from Hagen collection. Type M.C.Z. no. 25663.
Easily separated from C. canudasi Navas by the two stripes on basal antenna1 joint, fewer gradates, unmarked marginal forks.
Chrysopodes canudasi Navas 19 13
Described from Guatemala; I have not seen it.
172 Psyche [Sep t .-Dec.
Berkmansus cinctipes Bks. 19 15
Type from Corozal, Panama. Described as a Leucochrysa; in structure like B. elegans Guerin, but without large marks. Besides the two dark bands on the tibia the tip of tarsus is black, and the outer margin of wing is dark at end of each vein. There are five or six cubitals beyond the third cubital cell; the gradates are parallel, the inner row almost as near to radial sector as to the outer row.
Chrysopiella sabulosa Bks. 1915
One from Tlahualilo, Durango, Mexico, 30 August, does not differ from specimens from Arizona.
Eremochysa punctinervis McLachl. 1869
From Tlahualilo, Durango, Mexico, 30 August, and Sierra de 10s Burros, Coahuila, Mexico, 3 June. Like Texan specimens; E. digueti Navas 191 1 may be the same species. Nadiva balboana Bks. 1941
Types are from Barro Colorado, C. 2. in March and April. Meleoma innovata Hag. 1861
From Contreras, Mexico, 2 July, and Amecameca, Mexico, also Cerro Tancitaro, Michoacan, Mexico, 8 July. M. mexicana Bks. 1899 is a synonym.
Meleoma titschacki Navas 1928 described from San Jose, Costa Rica, I have not seen.
Meleoma dolicharthra Navas 1914 (Chrysopa), I have not seen; it was described from Guatemala.
Gonzaga torquata Navas 19 13
From Trinidad River, Panama, 2 March, and Alajuela River, Panama, 9 April.
1895. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. (2) V.
1899. Trans. Amer. Ent. SOC. XXV.
1900. Trans. Amer. Ent. SOC. XXVI.
1901. Trans. Amer. Ent. SOC. XXVII.
1903. Journ.,N. Y. Ent. SOC. XI.
1905. Trans. Amer. Ent. SOC. XXXII.
19451 Chysopidae of Central America 173
1910. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XII.
1913. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. XV.
1914. Can. Entom. XLVI.
1914a. Ent. News XXV.
191 5. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. f. 1914. 1920. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. LXIV.
1938. Can. Entom. LXX.
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Navas, P. A. Longinos
19 1 1. Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles XXXV.
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19 13a. Entom. Zeitschr. (Frankfurt) XXVII. 1914. Ann. Soc. Sci. Bruxelles XXXVIII.
1915. Mem. R. Acad. Cien. Artes Barcelona XI. 1917. Mem. R. Acad. Cien. Artes Barcelone XIII. 1917a. Mem. Pont. Accad. Sci. Nuovi Lincei (2) 111. 192 1. Rev. Acad. Cien. Zaragoza VI.
1923. Riv. Chilena Hist. Nat. XXVII.
192 5. Mem. R. Acad. Cien. Artes Barcelona XIX. 192 6. Broteria XXIII.
192 7. Riv. Chilena Hist. Nat. XXXI.
174 Psyche [Sept.-Dec.
1928. Bol. SOC. Entom. Espagna.
1929. Mem. Pont. Accad. Sci. Nuovi Lincei (2) XII. 1929a. Mem. R. Soc. Espagna Hist. Nat. XV. 1930. Riv. Chilena Hist. Nat. XXXIV.
193 1. Rev. Acad. Cien. Madrid XXV.
Schneider, G. T.
185 1. Monog. generis Chrysopse Leach.
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