New Species of Diplosphyronid Pseudoscorpions from Australia.
Psyche 54(1):36-56, 1947.
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?JEW SPECIES OF DIPLOSPHYRONID PSEUDO-
SCORPIONS FROM AUSTRALIA1
BY C. CLAYTON HOFF
Department of Zoology and Parasitology,
Colorado Agricultural and Mechanical College Through the kindness of Professor Nathan Banks, the writer has been able to study the collections of Australian and New Zealand pseudoscorpions deposited in the Mn- seum of Comparative Zoology. The majority of these collections were taken by members of the Harvard Aus- tralian Expedition in 1931 and 1932.
The present paper is concerned only with the diplo- sphyronid pseudoscorpions. The specimens have been mounted on microscope slides after being cleared in beecli- wood creosote. Measurements were made with a cali- brated micrometer ocular and are expressed in milli- meters. All of the specimens described here have been returned to the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Family OLPIIDB Cliamberlin 1930
Subfamily OLPIINE Banks 1895
Genus Olpium L. Koch 1873
Olpium zealandiensis sp. nov.
Body moderately slender ; carapace moder- ately brown, abdomen and leg's light yellowish brown, palpi deep reddish brown. Length of body 2.7 111111. Carapace smooth except weakly developed netlike lines on the posterior one-third of the face and along the sides. Setae sparse, only two setae along the posterior margin of the carapace. The two eyes of each side separated by less than the diameter of the posterior eye. Lateral margins of the carapace weakly convex, posterior margin nearly straight. Length of carapace about 0.8 mm., great- est width across posterior margin and equal to 0.71 111n1., ocular width about 0.5 mm.
1 Published by a grant from the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Har- vard College.
Pu&e 54:36-56 (1947). hup Ytpsychu einclub orgt5.UM-OK html
Abdomen elongate with sides weakly and evenly con- vex, length 1.9 nim., width 1.05 mm.
All tergites equally
sclerotic, not divided, surface marked by very faint net- like sculpturing. Each of the first two tergites with four setae, more posterior tergites with six setae, the tenth and the eleventh with 10 setae. Sternites a little more lightly pigmented than the tergites and virtually unsculptured. Most sternites with six to 10 very fine acuminate setae; sternites not divided.
C71elicera fairly stout, 0.27 mm. long, width of base 0.16 mm. Flagellum of three setre, anterior one stout and denticulate along the distal one-third; the middle seta about two-thirds the length of the distal one and also sub- terminally denticulat e ; the proxinial seta inconspicuous, less than one-half the length of the middle one, and ap- parently acuminate. Fixed finger gently curved, with four or five small, retroconical teeth along the distal one- half of the inner margin; lamina exterior wide and con- spicuous ; distal tooth of serrula interior ligulate and with finely serrate margin, next three more proximal teeth platyform and with serrate margins, other teeth modified to form a velum. Movable c7~eZiceraZ h e r a little curved, fairly slender; serrula exterior of 20 ligulate plates ; subapical lobe stout and with two rounded cusps ; apical tooth no more sclerotic than the rest of the finger; galeal seta inserted near the base of the subapical lobe and not reaching to the tip of the galea; galea (Fig. 1) stout, straight, and with three fairly stout and little- curved terminal and subterminal rami ; length of movable finger 0.2 mni.
Palps (Fig. 2) moderately stout; polished reddish brown in color ; investing setae long, acuminate, and fairly numerous ; surface smooth except for weakly developed granules on the sides of the maxilla+ on the trochanteral protuberances, on the central portion of the flexor surface of the femur, and along the distal half of the flexor surface of the chelal hand. Maxilla 0.44 mm. long, 0.28 mm. wide ; troclmnter 0.40 mm. long, 0.24 mm. wide; femur 0.71 mm. long', width 0.26 mm. ; tibia 0.71 nim. long, 0.31 mm. wide ; chela without pedicle 1.16 mm. long, 0.44 mm. wide ; chelal
38 Psyche [Mar.
hand without pedicle 0.60 mm. long, 0.42 mm. deep. From the side, chelal hand (Fig. 3) stout, depth little less than the width; hand not much narrowed towards the fingers ; length of movable finger 0.62 mm.
Many marginal teeth
of chelal fingers broken but apparently about 45 conical and cuspid teeth distributed along nearly the entire mar- gin of each finger.
Legs moderately stout, yellow in color; set2 fine and acuminate, sparse on the proximal podomeres but longer and more numerous on the distal podomeres ; surfaces of pedal podomeyes apparently uns&lptured; tarsal claws stout. First leg with pars basalis deepest across the dis- tal end, length measured along the extensor margin 0.264 mm., depth 0.13 111111. ; pars tibialis stout, extensor margin flatly convex, flexor margin more convex, length measured along the extensor margin 0.22 mm., depth 0.143 mm.; tibia subcylindrical except in the proximal portion, length 0.30 mm., depth 0.103 mm. ; metatarsus subcylindrical, length 0.135 mm., depth 0.07 mm. ; telotarsus a little deeper proximally than distally, length 0.133 mm., depth 0.067 mm. Fourt7x Ieq with extensor margin of femur a little flatly convex inthe center, more convex near the ends; flexor margin of femur more weakly and evenly convex than the extensor margin; length of pars basalis 0.23 mm. ; length of pars tibialis measured along' the extensor margin 0.55 mm., depth 0.265 mm. ; length of entire femur 0.67 mm. ; tibia with extensor margin nearly straight
except at the proximal end, flexor margin weakly convex, length 0.50 mm., depth 0.14 mm. ; metatarsus subcylindri- cal, with a long tactile seta inserted very close to the proximal margin, length 0.20 mm., depth 0.095 mm. ; telo- tarsus subcvlindrical, length 0.17 mm., depth 0.078 mm. Genital complex very simple;
third sternite with four setae. One median and two lateral cribiform plates, all small and subequal in size. Type locality.
The female holotype collected by Mr.
G. Archey on Tera Kihi Island, Hauraki Gulf, New Zea- land, on October 25,1924.
Remarks. A single species of Olpium, 0. mickaelsoni Tullgren, 1909, has been reported previously from the
19471 Pse udoscorpions 39'
, Australian region. From the description given by Cham- berlin (1930), it is evident that zealandienszs differs from michaelsoni by having much stouter palpal podomeres. By comparing the palp of zealandiensis with the figure ~iven by Beier (1932, fig. 210) for the palp of michaelsoni, &
it may be seen that a number of slight differences exist between the two forms with respect to the shape of the palpal podomeres. Olpium zealandiensis may be readily separated from other species of the genus by character- istics of the palpal podomeres.
Genus Xenolpium Chaniberlin 1930
Xenolpium granulosum sp. nov.
Female. Body elongate ; length 4.65 mm. Carapace light brown in color; posterior margin nearly straight, anterior margin weakly bilobed, lateral margins very weakly convex to straight behind the eyes ; posterior mar- gin with two setae, each placed some distance anterior to the actual margin; anterior margin with four setse; eyes prominent ; anterior eye separated from the anterior cara- pacal margin by more than the diameter of the eye, eyes of each pair separated by about one-half the diameter of the eye; carapace smooth except for netlike markings along the side and weakly developed granules behind the eyes ; length of carapace 1.08 111n1. ; posterior and greatest width about 0.9 nim. ; ocular width 0.5 mm. Abdomen much wider than carapace ; lateral margins gently con- vex; length 3.55 mm., greatest width 1.9 mm. Tergites light brown in color, surface virtually smooth; first ter- gite with four setae, central tergites with six to eight setae; all tergites undivided. Sternites smooth, light brown in color; most sternites with eight, some with six or 10 marginal setae.
C7zelicera moderately deep brown in color; base fairly stout and marked by a few netlike lines on the exterior surface ; all setae lo11g- and acuminate ; flagellum of four stout blades, each with an almost smooth margin; cheli- cera 0.29 mm. long, base 0.175 mm. wide. Fixed finger with wide and evenly convex lamina exterior ; distal one-
40 Psyche [Mar.
half of inner margin with five or six retroconical teeth, two other teeth in the inner margin of the apical tooth; terminal plate of serrula interior spinelike, the next three conical, others fused into a velum, all teeth with entire margins. Movable finqer fairly stout, a little curved; subapical lobe much smaller than the apical tooth and located very close to the latter; serrula exterior of about 20 ligulate plates (exact count prevented by broken plates) ; galea (Fig. 4) trifid near base, each branch sim- ple and fingerlike ; galeal seta fairly stout and not reach- ing to the tip of the galea; movable finger 0.26 mm. long. Palps (Fig. 5) moderately stout, deep reddish brown in color; setae acuminate; surface of podomeres very weakly granular, with the granules minute and hardly discernible on the extensor surfaces of all podomeres except the trochanter; chelal fingers with surface smooth. Maxilla 0.54 mm. long, 0.38 mm. wide; trochanter with conical extensor protuberance and a more rounded sub- dorsal one, granules of the extensor side confined to the protuberances ; length of trochanter 0.54 nun., width 0.31 mm. ; femur 0.88 mm. long, 0.35 111111. wide ; tibia 0.92 mm. long', with 0.37 mm. Chela from the dorsad with hand stout, fingers gently curved and well separated from the hand; chela without pedicle 1.58 mm. long, 0.55 111111. wide ; chelal hand exclusive of the pedicle 0.85 mm. long, 0.49 mm. deep; movable finger 0.8 111111. long. From the side, chelal hand (Fig. 6) subcylindrical ; basal margin ~-ounded and blended into the dorsal and ventral margins without interruption; fingers fairly slender; each finger with about 60 marginal teeth distributed along almost the entire finger margin; teeth of the distal portion of each row retroconical and with well-developed cusps, those of the proximal end of each row rounded and acuspid. The legs deep yellow in color ; fairly stout ; surface ap- parently not sculptured ; setae long and acuminate, more numerous 011 the distal than 011 the proximal podon~e~es; tarsal claws stout. First leg with femoral parts stout, margins of pars basalis flatly convex, margins of pars tibialis more rounded; length of pars basalis measured along the extensor margin 0.285 mni., depth 0.185 nini.;
pars tibialis nieasured along the extensor margin 0.30 mm. long, 0.182 mm. deep; tibia with extensor margin nearly straight except at the proximal end, weakly convex on the flexor margin, pedicle not developed, length 0.375 mm., depth 0.118 mm. ; metatarsus subcylindrical but a little narrowed distally, length 0.16 nim., depth 0.083 mm. ; telotarsus like the metatarsus in shape but somewhat more slender, length 0.16 mni., depth 0.067 mm. Fourth leg with subtriangular pars basalis, length 0.315 mm., depth 0.20 mm.; flexor margin of pars tibialis almost straight, extensor margin flatly convex with a distinct anguiation near the basal end, length measured along the extensor margin 0.78 mm., depth 0.335 nim. ; entire femur 0.93 mm. long; tibia and tarsal podomeres with shape much like the corresponding podomeres of the first leg; tibia 0.62 mm. long, 0.175 mm. deep ; metatarsus 0.245 mm. long, 0.115 mm. deep ; telotarsus 0.225 mm. long, 0.095 mm. deep; metatarsus with a tactile seta located 011 the exten- sor surface near the base of the podomere ; telotarsus with two tactile setae, one located 0.045 nim. and the other 0.125 mm. from the proximal margin.
Genita,l complex very simple.
Second sternite or an-
terior operculum with 11 small marginal setae; third sternite or posterior operculum with five marginal setse. Small median and lateral cribiform plates present. Type locality. The female holotype from Mullewa, Western Australia. Collection made by Dr. W. M. Wheeler on September 20, 1931.
Remarks. ~enolpium granulosum appears closely re- lated to 0. a~~zboi~ze~zsis Chamberlin, 1930, from the Dutch West Indies. The two species differ by the more slender chela, the basally less truncate chela1 hand, and the larger size of the body in 0. gra~~zdosum.
Family GARYPIDB Hansen 1894
Subfamily GARYPIN-E Simon 1879
Genus Galrypus L. Koch 1873
Garypus longidigitus sp. nov.
Figures 7, 8
Body large, stout, 4.4 nim. long; appendages long and slender. Carapace light brown in color; surface
42 Psyche [Mar.
granular and marked by netlike lines; anterior margin bilobed, lateral margins weakly convex; eyes large, the eyes of one side separated by less than one ocular diame- ter; eyes removed from the anterior carapacal margin by between two and three ocular diameters ; transverse furrows weakly developed; setae scattered, fairly numer- ous; length of carapace 1.28 mm., greatest width pos- teriorly and equal to 1.1 nim., ocular width 0.7 mm. Ab- domen oval-elongate, length 3.1 mm., width about 1.9 mm. Tergites 2 to 10 divided; surface sculptured as on the carapace ; brown in color ; setae weak and short ; first ter- gite with 10 setae, half-termites of central and posterior part of body with six or seven setae along the posterior margin and two or three setae along the lateral margin; intertergal membranes and median membranes between half-terarfces continuous, wide, and marked by wavy stria- tions. termites 4 to 10 divided; very lightly pigmented, especially anteriorly; sculpturing scalelike or netlike and much more weakly developed than on the tergites; setae short, fine, more or less similar in number and ar- rangement to those of the tergites; intersternal mem- branes like those of the tergites. Pleural membranes wide, marked by rugose or papillose striations. Stig- mata placed entirely in the pleural membranes and not on the sclerotic sternal halves.
Ctielicer-a fairly sout, yellowish brown in color; length 0.36 mm., width of base about 0.215 nim. Base quadrate ; inner margin with a deep sinuation between the base and the fixed finger; setae is, Is, and sb located on the promixal half of the fixed finger; dorsal surface of base weakly sculptured by netlike lines. Flagellum with three stout and much flattened blades ; the posterior blade two-thirds as long as the anterior one, the central blade intermediate in length; each blade denticulate, with the teeth long, slender, irregular in distribution and length, and confined to the distal two-thirds of each blade. Fixed finger verv convex, with well-rounded lamina exterior ; apical tooth very dark brown and sclerotic, with two small denticles on the inner surface; inner margin of finger with one or two stout, sclerotic, retroconical distal teeth followed
proximally by three to five weaker,
conical teeth becoming progressively
tal plate of serrula interior smnelike
smaller in size ; dis-
and directed anteri-
Movable finger gently curved ; apical tooth acute, darkly pigmented, and sclerotic ; subapical lobe subdi- vided distally into two acute teeth ; galeal seta inserted at the level of the subapical lobe and not reaching to the tip of the galea; serrula exterior partly broken but probably composed of about 25 ligulate plates; galea stout, fairly straight, with six slender and gently curved simple ranii confined to the distal one-third; length of movable cheli- ceral finger about 0.31 mm.
Pulps (Fig. 7) slender; yellowish brown except chela reddish brown; surface of podomeres except the chela1 fingers marked by netlike lines and granulations; setae fairly numerous, short, acute, slightly curved, and incon- spicuous. Maxilla 0.78 mm. long, about 0.5 mm. wide ; trochanter 0.65 mm. long, 0.38 mm. wide ; femur 1.65 mm. long, 0.318 mm. wide ; tibia 1.38 mm. long, 0.35 mm. wide ; chela without pedicle 2.65 mm. long, 0.65 mm. wide ; depth of chela 0.59 mm., length of hand without pedicle 1.1 mm. ; length of movable finger 1.65 nim. Shape of chela from the side and the arrangement of tactile setae as shown in figure 8. Marginal teeth of chela1 fingers cuspid, ar- ranged along the entire finger margin; about 85 teeth on the fixed finger, about 70 teeth on the movable finger; teeth near each end of the row on each finger more or less conical, those of the center of the row on the fixed finger retroconical, those of the center of the row of the movable finger retroconical to much flattened so that they are much less acute than the opposing teeth of the fixed finger. Legs very slender ; deep yellow in color ; surface marked by netlike lines ; setae like those of the palpi, except longer and more numerous on the flexor surfaces of the tibia1 and tarsal podomeres. First leg with stout trochanter, 0.33 rnm. lone, 0.235 mm. deep ; pa-rs basalis slender, flexor margin nearly straight, ext,ensor margin convex in the center, podoniere deepest near the distal end, length mea- sured along the extensor margin 0.62 nim., depth 0.185 mm. ; pars tibialis subcylindrical, length measured along
44 Psyche [Mar.
the extensor margin 0.39 mm., depth 0.18 mm.; tibia with extensor margin convex, flexor margin concave, deepest at the distal end, length 0.57 nim., depth 0.135 mm. ; meta- tarsus subcylindrical in shape, length 0.38 mm., depth 0.105 mm. ; telotarsus 0.345 mm. long, 0.1 mm. deep. Fourth leg with trochanter 0.55 mm. long, 0.24 mm. deep; pars basalis subtriangular in outline, 0.395 nun. long, 0.215 mm. deep; pars tibialis with very weakly convex flexor margin continuous with the margin of the pars basalis, extensor margin weakly to flatly convex but a little more convex basally than distally, lengtli measured along the extensor margin 0.995 mm., depth 0.275 mm. ; entire femur 1.25 mm. long; tibia shaped as in the first leg but much more slender, length 0.98 mm., depth 0.15 mm.; meta- tarsus subcylindrical but a little narrower across the dis- tal than the proximal end, length 0.48 mm., depth 0.13 mm.; telotarsus 0.38 mm. long, 0.12 mm. deep. Genital complex simple ; anterior operculuni with 17 setse, many of which are arranged in a row along the pos- terior margin; posterior operculum or third sternite with eight setae forming a single row; lateral cribiforin plates smaller than the somewhat fragmented median plate. Type locality.
Weier, Murray Islands, Torres Strait,
Collection made by H. L. Clark on October 4, 1913.
Unfortunately, no ecological data accompany the single individual (holotype) in the collection. Remarks.
This is the first record of the genus Garwiis L. Koch from the Australian region and its occurrence fulfills a prophecy made by Chamberlin (1934) that the genus should be present in Oceania.
Garypus longidigitus is readily separated from other species of the genus by the characteristics, especially the length : width ratios, of the palpal prodomeres. The very long and slender chela1 fingers are among the most sig- nificant of the diagnostic features.
Genus Synspliyronns Cl~ambe~lin 1930
Synspliyronus + Maorigarypvs Cliamberlin, 1930, Arm. and Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10, 5: 616, 617. Synsphyronus+Maoriga~pz~s Chamberlin, 1931, Stan-
ford Univ. Publ., Univ. Ser., Biol. Sci., 7 (1) : 135, 153, 155, 208, 215, 228 (figs.).
Synsp71yronns Chamberlin + Synsphyronidce Beier -+ Maorigaryptis Chamberlin, Beier, 1932, Das Tierreich, 57: 226, 238.
Synsptiyronus emend., Chamberlin, 1943, Ann. Ent. Soc. Anier., 36: 488, 489.
Genus emendatas. On studying in detail the new spe- cies described below, it becomes obvious that the species belong to the genus Synsp71y-omis in spite of the presence of seven, instead of eight or nine, tactile setae on the fixed finger of the palpal chela. Since Chamberlin (1943) has shown that the variable number of tactile setae is not a useful diagnostic character in this genus, there is no justi- fication for the erection of a new genus. As a result, the genus Synsptzyronus is hereby emended to include forms that have seven to nine tactile setae on the fixed chelal finger.
The presence of seven set= on the fixed chelal finger indicates relationship to the genus Anagarypus Cham- berlin, 1930. However, the nature of the vestitural setae of the palps and the position of tactile seta est of the fixed chelal finger preclude assignment of the present three species to the genus Anagarymis.
Synsphyronus (Maorigarypus) niger sp. nov. Figures 9,10
Body, legs, and chelicerae brown in color ; palpi dark reddish brown ; sculpturing of body and appendages as in the genus ; length of body 3.6 mm. Carapace as in the genus ; eyes of each side separated by about the lesser diameter of the anterior eve; carapacal furrows not evi- dent; posterior margin with four setae; length of carapace 1 mm., greatest width across the posterior margin and equal to 1.1 mm., ocular width about 0.6 mm. Tergite 1 with six setse; each half of tergite 2 and tergite 3 with three setae, more posterior tergites with four or five setae on each half ; tergal setae subclavate to clavate. -Sternites with setae acuminate to terminally truncate; setae similar to those of the tergites in number and arrangement; con-
46 Psyche [Mar.
tral sternites not divided, anterior and posterior ones divided. Abdomen stout, 2.6 mni. long, about 1.85 nm. wide.
Chelicera with cliaetotaxy and flagellum as in the genus ; length of chelicera 0.25 mm., width of base about 0.16 mni. Inner margin of fixed finger with three or four ~=etroconical teeth, inner margin of apical tooth of fixed finger with two small denticles. Movable cheliceral finger a little curved; subapical lobe very near the base of the apical tooth ; serrula exterior of 18 ligulate plates ; galea relatively short, simple, stout, terminally rounded and without rami; length of movable finger 0.19 mm. Pulps (Fig. 9) very similar in outline to those of other species of the genus. Sete of maxilla chiefly acuminate ; set= of the tro~liante~, femur, and tibia distinctly clavate ; set= of the chelal hand subclavate to clavate ; sets of the fingers acuminate and relatively long. Maxilla 0.60 mm. long, 0.34 mm. wide; troehanter nearly square in outline with the pedicle short and stout, length including pedicle 0.47 mm., greatest width taken at about a right angle with the longitudinal axis 0.37 mm.; femur 1.07 lam. long, width 0.30 mni. ; tibia 0.81 mm. long, 0.325 mm. wide ; chela basally truncate and little convex, fingers very slender in relation to the hand and gently curved; length of chela without pedicle 1.52 mm., width 0.44 mm. ; length of hand without pedicle 0.83 mm., depth of chelal hand 0.36 mm. ; length of movable finger 0.70 mm. Marginal teeth of the chelal fingers conical to retroconical in the distal part of the row of each finger, much flattened in the proximal portion of each row; cusps poorly developed; about 35 teeth on the movable finger, about 45 on the fixed finger. Tactile setae arranged as shown in figure 10. Legs dark brown in color, with the more distal podo- meres somewhat dusky; setas of femoral parts and the ex- tensor margins of the more distal podomeres clavate, being conspicuously long and club-shaped on the tarsal podomeres of the fourth leg; setae of the flexor surface of the tibia1 and tarsal podomeres acuminate ; tarsal claws moderately stout. First leg with trochanter 0.245 mni. long, 0.175 mm. deep; pars basalis with flexor margin more or less evenly convex, 0.253 mm. long, 0.163 mm.
19471 Pseudoscorpions 47
deep ; pars tibialis with evenly convex extensor margin, flexor margin bulging near the center; length 0.285 mm., depth 0.19 mm. ; tibia as in other species of the genus, length 0.335 mm., depth 0.125 mm. ; metatarsus subcylin- drical, length 0.158 mm., depth 0.095 mm. ; telotarsus with both margins a little convex, length 0.145 mm., depth 0.075 mm. FourtJi leg with extensor margin of the tro- chanter evenly convex, length 0.365 mrn., depth 0.17 mm. ; pars basalis subtriangular in shape, 0.265 mm. long, 0.19 mm. deep ; pars tibiahs with extensor margin more or less evenly but not strongly convex, flexor margin nearly straight and continuous with the flexor margin of the pars basalis, greatest length 0.61 mm., depth 0.245 mm. ; entire femur 0.80 mm. long ; tibia very weakly S-shaped, length 0.49 mm., greatest depth in the distal half and equal to 0.14 mm. ; metatarsus subcvlindrical, 0.195 mm. long, 0.102 mm. deep; telotarsus stout, length 0.19 mm., depth 0.10 mm.
Genital complex with the anterior operculum asetace- ous except for six small acuminate setae just anterior to the genital pore ; posterior operculum with seven or eight small sets approximate to the genital pore and five longer setae along the posterior margin. Both opercula with numerous slitlike lyrifissures.
The single male, the holotype, collected by Dr. P. J. Darlington 011 Xovember 30, 1931, at Ade- laide, South Australia.
The present species differs from all pre- viously described species of the subgenus Maorigarypus by having two rather than one or three tactile setae on the movable chela1 finger and differs from all described species of the genus Synsp7n~ronus by having only seven tactile setae on the fixed chela1 finger. Synsphyronus m.qe~- is similar in these characters to S. maqnus described below. iletliods of separatingtthese two species will be given under the description of the latter. Synsphyronus (Maorigarypus) magnus sp. nov. Figures 11, 12
Female. Very large; body ovate in general shape; abdomen, carapace, and legs light to medium brown ; palpi
48 Psyche [Mar.
deep reddish brown ; sculpturing as typical in members of the genus; body 4.45 mni. long. Carapace as in the genus; anterior eye of each side narrowly elliptical and separated from the posterior eye by about twice the lesser diameter of the anterior eye ; a heavily sclerotized keel or ridge between the eyes, reaching its greatest development at the anterior border of the posterior eye; anterior eye removed from the anterior carapacal margin by a dis- tance equal to four or five times the diameter of the pos- \
terior eye ; lateral margins of carapace gently and evenly convex; posterior margin with six marginal setae; length of carapace 1.35 nim. ; greatest "width along the posterior margin and equal to 1.5 mm.; ocular breadth about 0.8 mm. Tergites 2 through 10 divided; tergites 4 through 10 with each tergal half marked by a centrally located and more deeply pigmented spot; setae subclavate, ter- minally truncate but not much widened; tergites 1 and 2 with eight setae; other tergites with 10 to 16 setae. Ster- nites 5 through 10 marked by pigmented spots similar to those of the tergites; division of some sternites weakly indicated; sternite 4 with eight marginal sets; set2 of other sternites ranging from 10 to 14; setae of anterior sternites acuminate, some setae of posterior sternites weakly ~ubclavat~e. Abdomen stout; 3.1 mm. long', about 2.5 mm. wide.
Chelicera as usual in members of the genus; longest blade of flagellum with three or four slender and long dentations placed a little distal to the midpoint; length of chelicera between 0.35 and 0.36 mm., width of base 0.21-0.22 mm. ; length of movable finger about 0.26 mm. Fixed finger with relatively narrow lamina exterior ; four retroconical teeth on the distal half of the inner finger margin, two smaller denticles on the inner margin of the apical tooth. Movable finger little curved ; subapical lobe poorly developed, located approximate to the apical tooth; apical tooth little sclerotic; galea gently curved, simple, stout, terminally rounded and blunt, with con- spicuous gland ducts passing from the base to the tip; sermla exterior of 19 ligulate plates; galeal seta not reaching nearly to the tip of the galea.
19471 Pseudoscorpions 49
Pulps (Fig. 11) with sculpturing and general shape of podonieres as usual in members of the genus ; setae of the maxillae weakly subclavate like those of the tergites; set= of all other podomeres of the palp, including both margins of the chelal hand, short, stout, clavate, and fairly numer- ous; setae of the chelal fingers acuminate. Maxilla 0.81 mm. long, 0.46 mni. wide ; trochanter including pedicle 0.67 nini. long, greatest width measured at about a right angle to the longitudinal axis 0.51 mni. ; femur 1.50 mm. long, 0.39 mni. wide ; tibia 1.17 mm. long, 0.42 mm. wide ; length of chela without pedicle 2.05 mm., width 0.63 mm. ; length of hand without pedicle 1.16 nim., depth 0.53 nnn. ; length of movable fingers 0.97 mm. Marginal teeth of chelal fingers weakly retroconical and strongly cusped in the distal part of the row, but flattened and acuspid in the proximal portion of the row of each finger; about 40 teeth on tlie movable finger and about 45 on the fixed finger. Movable finger with two tactile setae, the fixed finger with seven, distributed as shown in figure 12. Legs as typical in tlie subgenus Maorigarypus; anterior leg's stout, posterior legs relatively slender; yellowish brown in color ; tarsal claws moderately stout ; setae of the femur and the extensor margins of the tibial and tarsal podomeres short and subclavate to clavate, setae of the flexor margins of the tibial and tarsal podomeres acumi- nate and relatively long. First leg with flexor margin of trochanter evenly covex, 0.35 mm. long, 0.25 mm. deep; pars basalis with both extensor and flexor margins weakly convex, the flexor flatly so, length measured along the extensor margin 0.35 mm., depth 0.24 mm.; pars tibialis subfusiform, length 0.40 mm., depth 0.27 mm. ; tibia stout, the extensor margin weakly concave except in the proxi- mal one-fourth, flexor margin convex, length 0.50 mm., depth 0.175 mm. ; tarsal poclomeres subcylindrical ; meta- tarsus 0.21 mm. long, 0.13 mm. deep ; telotarsus 0.225 mni. long, depth 0.11 mm. Fourth leg with extensor margin of trochanter highly arched or covex, flexor margin weakly but evenly convex, length 0.52 mm., depth 0.265 mm.; pars basalis subtriangular, 0.355 mni. long, 0.23 mm. deep ; pars tibialis with extensor margin flatly convex, flexor
50 Psyche [Mar.
margin weakly concave and continuous with that of the pars basalis ; length of pars tibialis measured along the extensor side 0.91 mm., depth 0.28 mm. ; entire femur 1.16 mm. in length; tibia weakly S-shaped, length 0.75 mm., depth 0.18mm.; both tarsal podomeres subcylindrical; length of metatarsus 0.275 mm., depth 0.135 mm.; telo- tarsus 0.28 mm. long, depth 0.13 mm.
Genital complex simple, opercula little differentiated ; anterior operculum with eight setae, chiefly along the medial portion of the posterior margin ; posterior apercu- lum with nine marginal setae; cribiform plates relatively large; two median plates with one located anterior to the other, the posterior one the smaller; lateral plates sub- equal in size to the larger of the median plates. ~ ~ p e locality.
A single specimen, the female liolotype, in a collection taken by Dr. P. J. Darlington in November, 1931, on the Margaret River, Western Australia. Remarks.
The present species may be separated from other members of the subgenus Maorigarypus, except S. niger, by the reduced number of tactile setae on the fixed chela1 finger and by the presence of two tactile set* on the movable finger. From S. miner, S. maqnus may be separated by the larger size of the body and appendi&lar podomeres, differences in shape of the palpal tibia, and differences in the nature of the carapacal eyes and the teeth of the chela1 fingers, as well as other specifically significant characteristics.
Synsphyronus (Synsphyronus) callus sp. nov. Figures 13-15
Description based on two individuals, the holotype and one female paratype.
Measurements of the
paratype are given in parentheses immediately after the corresponding measurements for the holotype whenever the two show significant difference. Body ovate; body, carapace, and legs light to moderately brown; palps deeper brown in color; sculpturing as typical in members of the genus ; anterior legs somewhat stout, posterior legs relatively more slender ; body 3.3 (3.25) mm. long. Cara- pace as usual in the genus ; eyes of each side separated by
about the diameter of the anterior eye, a sclerotic keel or ridge just anterior to the posterior eye; anterior eye of each side more or less circular in outline, posterior eye a little elliptical; four setae along the posterior margin of the carapace ; carapace 0.9 (0.95) mni. long, 0.1 mm. wide ; ocular breadth about 0.55 n1111. Tergites except the first divided; tergites 1 and 2 with four setae, greatest number of setas on any tergite is eight; all setae subclavate; ter- gites 4 through 10 with a pigmented. spot on each half- tergite. Sternites 4 and 5 nearly entire, sternites 6 through 10 divided; sternites 5 through 10 with darkly pigmented spots much as on the tergites ; most sternites with six setae, a few with eight setae ; setae of anterior ster- nites usually acuminate, those of posterior sternites weakly subclavate. Abdomen oval in general shape, length about 2.4 mm., breadth about 1.9 mm. Clielicer-a as usual in the genus ; flagellum with the two short blades little more than one-fourth as long as the longest blade ; the longest flagellar blade with one to three slender denticles near the center of the anterior margin; length of the chelicera about 0.23 mm., width of base 0.15 to 0.16 mm.; movable finger 0.165 (0.185) mm. long. Fixed cheliceral fiw with three retroconical teeth on the distal half of the inner margin; inner margin of the apical tooth nearly edentate; apical tooth stout, termi- nally blunt; lamina exterior narrow. Movable c73eliceral finger little curved, outer margin nearly straight; sub- apical lobe blunt, not well developed, approximate to the apical tooth in position; serrula exterior of 19 to 21 ligu- late plates (condition and position of specimens preclude exact count) ; galea broken in all specimens, but evidently stout.
Palps (Fig. 13) with setae of maxilla acuminate to sub- clavate ; set~ of chela1 fingers acuminate ; all other palpal setae clavate and relatively long ; podomeres with the usual pseudoderm and sculpturing. Maxilla 0.47 (0.49) mm. long, 0.30 mm. wide; trochanter 0.42 mm. long, width at right angles to greatest length 0.34 (0.33) mm., width across the distal end 0.27 nm. ; femur 0.98 mm. in length, A245 (0.25) mm. in width; tibia with length 0.73 (0.74)
02 Psyche [Nar.
miii., width 0.27 (0.28) mm. ; length of chela without pedicle 1.38 (1.43) mm., width 0.39 (0.375) mm. ; chela1 hand with- out pedicle 0.68 (0.7) mm. long, 0.33 mni. deep; movable finger 0.7 (0.75) nim. in length. Chela1 teeth retroconical and cuspid at the distal end of the row of each finger, coni- cal to rounded and acuspid at the proximal end of the row; fixed finger with 45 to 50 teeth, movable finger with about 35 teeth. Movable finger with one tactile seta, fixed finger with seven; setae distributed as indicated in figure 14. Legs as in the subgenus Synsp71yronus except that the tarsus of one or more legs may have a suture dividing the tarsus into two parts, which, however, are never articu- late; incompletely fused metatarsus and telotarsus may occur on the same animal as has some of the tarsal podo- meres completely fused ; tarsal claws stout ; pedal chaeto- taxy much as in 8. nicer described above. First leg fairly stout; trochanter 0.235 mni. long, 0.16 mm. deep; pars basalis with extensor margin nearly straight, flexor mar- win weakly convex, length 0.26 mm., depth 0.135 mm. ; pars &.
tibialis with extensor margin nearly straight except near the proximal end in the holotype but somewhat evenly convex in the paratype, flexor margin moderately convex, length 0.25 mm., depth 0.16 mm. ; tibia with extensor mar- gin nearly straight, length 0.31 mm., depth 0.105 mm.; miotarsus (fused metatarsus and telotarsus) 0.285 (0.305) mm. long, 0.08 mm. deep. Fourttz leg 'elatively slender ; trochanter about 0.34 mm. long (broken in holotype and length not determined), 0.16 (0.17) mm. deep ; pars basalis with a slight protuberance at the distal end of the nearly straight flexor margin, 0.275 mm. long, 0.16 nim. deep; pars tibialis with extensor margin a little flatly convex except at the ends, flexor margin nearly straight, length 0.55 (0.54) mm., depth 0.19 (0.185) mm. ; entire femur 0.75 (0.74) mm. long; tibia weakly S-shaped, length 0.52 mm., depth 0.115 (0.11) mm. ; miotarsus subcylindrical or a little fusiform, 0.38 (0.39) mm. long, 0.095 (0.09) mm. deep.
Genital complex simple, anterior operculum with six setae, posterior opercnlum with six (paratype) or eight (holotype) set= ; two median cribiform plates, arranged
one behind the other and with two or three very small accessory plates between; lateral plates subequal to or smaller than the anterior median date.
A single nymph, probably a tritonymph.
Similar to the adult in general appearance and many de- tails ; appendages stouter and, especially the palpi, a little lighter in color; body 2.4 nim. long. Carapace 0.73 mm. long, 0.89 mm. wide across the posterior margin, ocular breadth about 0.45 mm. C1zeIicera much as in the adult: galea (Fig. 15) bifurcated at the very tip ; serrula exterior of 16 plates. Palpi in general as in the adult, except podo- meres somewhat smaller and stouter; femur 0.73 mm. long, 0.195 mm. wide ; tibia 0.53 mm. long, 0.23 mm. wide ; chela including pedicle 1.02 111n1. in length, 0.30 mm. in width ; length of hand including' pedicle 0.53 mm. ; movable finger 0.52 mm. long. Movable chelal finger with about 25 marginal teeth; one tactile seta, probably t, located somewhat distal to the midpoint of the finger. Fixed chelal finger with about 35 marginal teeth; six tactile setae present and distributed as follows : et about one-third of the finger length from the tip ; it on a level about one areo- lar diameter proximal to et; est located a little distal to the basal one-third of the finger; ist ( ?) and ib situated a little more than one-fifth of the finger length from the base of the finger and separated by less than one areola' diameter; a single exterior seta (probably eh) located near the base of the finger and considerably proximal to the level of ib.
Legs similar to those of the adult but
podomeres smaller and somewhat stouter.
. Type locality. Australia. The female holotype from a collection taken on Rottnest Island, Western Australia, in December, 1931, by members of the Harvard Australian Expedition; the female paratype collected by Dr. P. J. Darlington at Cottesloe Beach, near Perth, Western Aus- tralia, on October 17, 1931; and the paratype nymph in a collection made by Dr. Darlington on October 24, 1931, at Rottnest Island, Western Australia.
Remarks. Synsphyronus callus is unique among mem- bers of the genus by having a combination of one tactile seta 011 the movable chelal finger and seven tactile setae on the fixed chelal finger.
Beier, Max. 1932. Pseudoscorpionidea. I. Subord. Chthoniinea et Neobisiinea. Das Tierreich, 57 : 1-258.
Chamberlin, J. 0.
A synoptic classification of the false scorpions or chela-spinners, with a report on a cosmopolitan collection of the same. -Part 11.
Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist., ser. 10, 5:
Chamberlin, J. C.
1934. Check list of the false scorpions of Oceania. Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Occ. Papers, lO(22) : 1-14. Chamberlin J. C. 1943.
The taxonomy of the false scorpion genus Syn- sphyronus with remarks on the sporadic loss of stability in generally constant morphological characters. Ann. Ent. Soc. America, 36: 486-500. EXPLANATION OF PLATES 2 AND 3
Drawings were made with the aid of a camera lucida. The tactile set%
are omitted from most of the dorsal views of the palpi and the marginal teeth are omitted from the exterior views of the chelae. Fig. 1. Olpium sealandiensis sp, nov., galea, female holotype. Fig. 2.
Olpiurn sealandiensis sp. nov., dorsal view of palp, female holotype. Fig. 3. OlpiiUm sealandiensis sp. nov., exterior view of chela, female holotype.
Xenolpium granuloswn sp. nov., tip of movable cheliceral finger and galea, female holotype.
Xenolpiurn granulosm sp. nov., dorsal view of palp, female holotype. Fig.
Xenolpium granulosum sp. nov., exterior view of chela, female holotype.
Garypus longidigitzs sp. nov. dorsal view of palp, female holotype. Fig. 8. Garypus longidigitus sp. nov., exterior view of chela, female holotype.
Synsphyronus niger sp. nov., dorsal view of palp, male holotype. Fig. 10.
Synsphyronus niger sp. nov., exterior view of chela, male holotype, Fig. 11.
SynspJiyronus magnus sp. nov., dorsal view of palp, female holotype. Fig. 12.
Synsphyronus magnus sp. nov., exterior view of chela, female holotype.
Synsphyronus callus sp. nov., dorsal view of palp, female holotype. Fig. 14.
Synsphyro-nus callus sp. nov., lateral view of chela, female holotype. Fig. 15.
Synsp'hyronus callus sp. nov., galea, nymphal paratype.
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