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Herbert W. Levi.
The Spider Genera Steatoda and Enoplognatha in America (Araneae, Theridiidae).
Psyche 69(1):11-36, 1962.

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THE SPIDER GENERA STEATODA AND
ENOPLOGNATHA IN AMERICA*
(ARANEAE, THERIDIIDAE)
BY HERBERT W. LEVI
Museum of Comparative Zoology, Harvard University The previous revisions (Levi, 1957a, 19570) of the two genera Enoplognatha and Steatoda considered only the North American species. Since the revisions were published, large South American collections have become available and the types of South American species could be consulted.
The majority of species of both genera are found in the north temperate zone and are fairly well known. The additional species described here from the ne~t~opical area are sometimes intermediate between the two genera. Enoplognatha jvruviana may lack the tooth on the posterior margin of the chelicerae as in Steatoda species. The males of several Steatoda (e.g. 8. andina) have the chelicerae enlarged as is characteristic of Enuplognatha. South American Enoplognatha species are found only in southern Peru and northern Chile (Map I). The genus has no representatives in Central America or the West Indies. Steatoda species are found in all parts of South America, with several endemic species and several that are widespread (8. ancorata, S. grossa, S. muesta).
Unlike Anelosinzus species (Levi, in press) Steatoda species cross the desert or mountain barrier into Chile (Map 2).
The types of species could be examined through the hospitality and cooperation of Dr. G. Owen Evans and Mr, D. Clark of the British Museum (Natural History) ; Prof. G. C. Varley of the Hope Depart- ment of Entonlology, Oxford; Dr. L. Brundin of the Natural History Museum, Stockholm; Prof. M. Birabkn of the Museo de la Plata; Prof. M. Vachon of the Mu&um National d1Histoi1-e Naturelle, Paris; Mr. J. Pr6szyriski of the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw; Dr. L. Forcart of the Naturhistorisches Museum, Basel and Dr. M. Beier of the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna. I would like to thank the following for the loan of specimens for study: Prof. M. Vachon, Mus&m~ National dlHistoire Naturelle (MNHN) ; Mr. J. Kekenbosch of the Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles, Brussels (ISNB) ; Dr. W. J. Gertsch of the American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) ; Dr. 0. Kraus of the Senckenberg Museum, *Manuscript received by the editor November 20, 1961. Pu&e W:l1-36 (1962). hup ttpsychu einclub orgt6WW-Ol Lhtml



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12 Psyche [March
Frankfurt (S^VIF) ; Dr. E. S. R.oss of the California Academy of Sciences (CAS) ; Dr. H. Exline (311-s. D. Frizzell) for specimens from northern Peru and Ecuador collected by herself and others; Dr. R. X. Schick of California; Miss H. Zapfe (Mrs. G. Mann) of Santiago de Chile; Dr. J. Abalos of Santiago del Estero and Prof. H. Stahnke of Arizona. A trip to European museums to exam,ine types was made possible by a National Science Foundation Grant (G-4317) and the research was supported by a grant from the
National Institutes of Health (E-1944).
E no plognatha Pavesi
Enoplognatha Pavesi, 1880, Ann. Mus. Civ. Stor. Nat. Geneva, vol. 15, p. 325. Type species by original designation and monotypy heri id ion mandibulart Lucas.
Diagnosis.
Medium sized to large theridiid spiders. Enoplognatha, like Steatoda, has a large colulus and a subspherical abdomen. Females have a tooth on the posterior margin of the chelicerae. Males usually have enlarged chelicerae, with enlarged teeth and have the paracym- bium on the margin of the cymbium (Levi and Levi, 1962). Species misplaced. Enoplognatha Mia Chamberlin, I 9 I 6 = Ane- lositnus studiosus ( Hentz, I 850) . E noplopatha triangulifera Simon, I 902 = hlosimus recurvatus ( Tullgren, 1 90 I ) . juninensis
peruviana
pun0
zapfei
Map 1.
Distribution of South American Enoplognatha species. Key to American Species of Enoplognatha
I a. Species found in South America . . . . . .. . . . . . .. . . . . . . . .... .. . . . . . . . . . . ... . . 2 i b. Species found in north of Mexico .
. .. . . . . . . .. . . .. . , ,... .. .... . .... . .. . . 5



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19 621
2a.
2b.
3a.
3 b.
4a.
4b.
5 a.
5b.
6a.
6b.
7a.
7b.
8a.
8b.
9a.
9b.
I oa.
lob.
I la.
nb.
I 2a.
Levi - Steatoda and Enoplognatha
13
E~igynum with a large central depression (Figs. 12, 13, 15) 3 Epigynum otherwise .................................................................. 4 Epigynum with central depression surrounded by a lip (Figs. .................................... 12, I 3) ; ducts coiled (Fig. I I ) ; Peru .......................................................... E. jmninensis (Keyserling) Epigynum with central depression lacking a lip posterior (Fig. ............
15) ; ducts with a sclerotized loop (Fig. 14) ; Chile E. mpfei n. sp.
.............................................................................. Fused ducts extending anterior and surrounding seminal i-ecep- tacles (Fig. 9) ..................................................... E. pun0 n. sp. Fused ducts not extending anterior of seminal receptacles (Fig. 7) .................................................. E. peruviana Chamberlin Yellow-white coloration with black or red lines on carapace and abdomen (1957a, fig. 4) ; introduced in northeastern and Pacific coast states ......................................... E. ovata (Clerck) Gray, brown or black coloration .............................................. 6 ........................................................................................ Males 7
Females .................................................................................... 14
Lacking paracy~nbiumt on cyrnbial margin (Fig. 4) ; Arizona, southeastern California .................................. E. maricopa n. sp. With paracymbium on cymbial margin .................................... 8 Conductor with a stalked distal apophysis ( 1957a) fig. 13-16) 9 Conductor otherwise ......................................................... 10 Conductor apophysis widened distally and truncate ( 1g57a, figs. I 5, I 6) ; California ................... . se/?na Chambei-lin and Ivie Conductor apophysis pointed distally ( Ig57a, figs. 13, 14) ; introduced in Oregon ................................ E. thoracica (Hahn) Chelicesae with two subequal teeth on posterior margin ( I 957a, figs. 24, 25) ............................................................................ I1 Chelicerae with one large mesa1 tooth (lg57a, figs. 46-48) 12 Abdomen with a spotted dorsal pattern (1957a) fig. 33) ; median apophysis in ventral view only in distal half of alveolus (1957a, fig. 26) ; widespread throughout United States and southern Canada, Mexico ............................... E. ~~zurmorata ( Hentz) Abdomen with a foliate dorsal pattern (1957a, fig. 37) ; median apophysis in ventral view extending into proximial half of alveolus ( 195721, fig. 28) ; east of Rocky Mountains to New- foundland ................................................. E. tecta (Keyserling) Ectal podon of conductor with long axis almost parallel to axis of cymbium (1957a, figs. 42-45) ; western states, rare in east ....................................... E. joshua Chamberlin and Ivie



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14 Psyche
[March
Long axis of ectal portion of conductor at almost right angles ..............................
to axis of cymbium ( I 957a, figs. 38, 40) I 3
Embolus more proximal, conductor with a longer ectal portion (figs. 38, 39) ; South Dakota to Utah at lower elevations ........ ............................................ E. wyuta Chamberlin and Ivie Embolus more distal, conductor with a shorter ectal portion (1957a, figs. 40, 41) ; Alaska to Greenland, in Rocky Moun- tains above timberline and in spruce-fir forest, Minnesota, Pennsylvania. New England . E. intrepida ( Smensen) Epigynum with a light posterior transverse bridge (1957a, fig. 55) ; western states, rare in east E. Joshua Chamberlin and Ivie Epigynu~ni otherwise ........................................................... I 5 Epigynum with an oval depression having dark marks of openings on the anterior of the depression (1957a, fig. 20) ; California E. sdma Chamberlin and Ivie
Epigynum otherwise 16
Epigynum with a transverse swelling, with a seam on the anterior and openings on each end of seam ( 19j7a. fig. 18) ; introduced in Oregon
E. thoracica ( Hahn)
Epigynum otherwise 17
Epigynu~n with distinct dark marks indicating openings I9 Epigynum with diffuse dark marks I 8
Swelling of epigynum divided by a transverse groove ( I 95 7a, figs. 31, 32), spotted dorsal abdominal pattern ( I957a. fig. 33) ; widespread throughout United States and southern Canada, Mexico E. marinorata (Hentz)
Epigynum swelling undivided with only a slight depression posterior ( I 957a, figs. 35, 36), foliate dorsal pattern of abdomen (1957a, fig. 37) ; east of Rocky Mountains to Newfoundland E. tecta (Keyserling)
Dark mark of epigynum anterior to a light swelling (Fig. 2) ; Arizona, southeastern California
E. maricopa 11. sp.
Dark mark anterior to a transverse ridge 20
Posterior edge of dark mark of epigynum straight ( I 95 7a, fig. 50) ; South Dakota to Utah at lower elevations E. wyuta Chamberlin and Ivie
Dark mark dumb-bell shaped ( 1957a, fig. 52) ; Alaska to Greenland, in Rocky Mountains above timberline and in spruce- fir forest, Minnesota, Pennsylvania, New England E. in trepida ( Serensen)




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19621 Levi - Steatoda and Enoplognatha 15 Enoplognatha selnza Charnberlin and Ivie Additional record. California. Los Angeles Co.: Big Tujunga Canyon, San Gabriel Mts., 3 June 1955 (R. X. Schick). Enoplog'natha marmorata ( Hentz) and
Enoplognatha tecta (Keysel-ling)
Although these are common species in the eastern United States, we still have few observations on their habits. Mature E. tecta have been collected on a garage door in Cambridge, Massachusetts and numerous specimens were collected rolled up in leaves in herbaceous vegetation along forest edge about 40 cm above ground in southern Minnesota, in an area where E. marmorata was collected under boards in gardens.
Additional records of E. marmorata. Canada. British Columbia: Muskeg near Little Prairie (D. Rounds). Mexico. Hidalgo: Guer- rero Mill (W. M. Mann).
Enoplognatha maricopa new species
Figures 1-5
Type. Male from Phoenix, Maricopa County, Arizona, I I March 1960 (H. L. Stahnke) in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Description. Male carapace, sternum, legs red-brown. Abdomen mottled purplish. Sclero'tized portion of epigastric area and plate above pedicel on abdomen red-brown. Carapace with a circular thoracic depression. Anterior median eyes smallest, anterior laterals largest. Anterior median eyes a little less than a diameter apart, their radius from laterals. Posterior median eyes a little less than a diameter apart, one diameter from laterals. Chelicerae heavy but not elongated, with one large anterior tooth (Fig. 5). Total length 3.4 mm. Cara- pace I .8 mm long, 1.3 mm wide. First patella and tibia 1.4 mm ; second 1.3 mm; third 1.0 mm. Fourth femur I .3 mm; patella and tibia I .6 mm; metatarsus I .2 mn1 ; tarsus 0.5 mm. Female carapace, sternum and legs mottled brown or yellowish. Abdomen with a black pattern on dorsum as in Enoplognatha wynta Chamberlin and Ivie (1957a, fig. 53). Anterior median eyes smaller than others. Anterior medians one and one-half diameters apart, one diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes one diameter apart, a little more than one diameter from laterals. Chelicera with one anterior tooth and three denticles between tooth and base of fang.



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16 Psyche [March
Posterior margin of chelicera with one small tooth (missing on one side of one specimen). Total length one female 2.9 mm, another 3.8 mm.
Carapace of the latter 1.5 mm long, I .2 mm wide. First femur 1.6 mm; patella and tibia I .8 mm; metatarsus I .o mm~; tarsus 0.8 mm. Second patella and tibia I .5 mm ; third I .I mm ; fourth I .8 mm. Comments. It is not certain that the male and female described here belong together.
However, since large collections of spiders are available from southern and southeastern Arizona and no speci- mens of Enoplognatha have been found, I assume that the distribution of Enoplognatha maricopa is north from the type locality, where the females were found, a poorly collected area. Diagnosis. The palpus differs from other North American species in that there is no paracymbium on the margin of the cy~nbiumi (Fig. 4). However, the transparent edge of the cymbium is difficult to see. On the mesa1 side of the bulb is a sclerite, probably part of the conduc- tor, which has two projections, one toward the venter and one toward the distal end of the palpus
(Fig. 3). The female differs from
Enoplognatha intrepida (Smensen) in that it has two dark openings connected by a black groove; posterior to the groove is a swelling having a lighter center (Fig. 2).
Records. California. Placer Co., near Emigrant Gap, 8 July 1956, 2 9 (V. Roth, W. J. Gertsch, AMNH) ; Tahoe City, 8 July 1956, 9 (W. J. Gertsch, V. Roth, AMNH).
Enoplognatha peruviana Chamberlin
Figures 6-8
Enoplognatha teruviana Chamberlin, 1916, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 60: 232, pi. 16, figs. 8-11, 52. Female type from Urubamba, 3100 m alt., [Cuzco], Peru, in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, examined. Description. Carapace, sternum, legs red-brown. Abdomen black with a dorsal pattern as in Enoplogmtha tecta (Keyserling), ( 1g57a, fig. 37). Anterior median eyes two-thirds diameter apart, one diameter from, laterals.
Posterior median eyes two-thirds diameter apart, one and one-half diameters from laterals. Anterior median eyes slightly smaller than others. Cheliccra with three large teeth on anterior margin, the first and third larger than the middle one; none on posterior margin of the type. However, another specimen seems to have the posterior tooth. Colulus relatively small with two setae.
Total length of female type 6.5 mm. Carapace 3.6 mm long, 2.4 m~m wide. First femur, 2.7 nlm; patella and tibia, 3.4 mm;



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19621 Levi - Steatoda and Enoflognatha 17 metatarsus, 2.0 mm ; tarsus, I. I mm. Second patella and tibia, 3.0 mm ; third, 2.3 mm; fourth, 3.2 mm.
The male illustrated (Fig. 6) may belong to this species; this is uncertain, as is the locality where it has been found. Records. Peru. "Pampa Machei, 4400 m," Feb. 1947, d' (Bi-echt, AMNH). Cuzco: Cuzco, 3500 m, July 1947, Q (W. Weyrauch, AMNH).
Enoplognatha puno new species
Figures 9, 10
Type. Female from 32 km north of Desaguadero, Puno, Peru, 27 Feb. 1951 (E. I. Schlinger, E. S. Rcss), in the California Acad- emy of Sciences. The specific name is a noun in apposition, after the type locality.
Description. Carapace, sternum, legs dark brown. Abdomen brownish black with an indistinct dorsal pattern as in E. peruviana. Venter with some white pigment on each side. Anterior median eyes much smaller (two-thirds their diameter) than oval posterior eyes. Anterior median eyes two-thirds diameter apart, more than their diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes less than their shorter diameter apart, two and one-half times their shorter diameter from laterals. Chelicerae with three large anterior teeth and a minute denticle on posterior margin. Total length 6.1 mm. Carapace 2.6 mm long, 2.0 mm wide. First femur 2.3 mm; patella and tibia 2.9 mm ; metatarsus I .7 mm ; tarsus I .O mm. Second patella and tibia 2.5 mm; third 2.1 mm; fourth 3.0 mm.
Diagnosis. Only the epigynum (Fig. 10) and ducts of the internal genitalia (Fig. 9) separate this species from E. peruviaw; the pattern and the structure are very similar. It is possible that this species belongs to a geographical race of E. peruviana, Enoplognatha juninensis (Keyserli'ng)
Figures I I - I 3
Lithyphantes juninensis Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, Theridiidae 2(1) : 143, pi, 6, fig. 90, 9. Female lectotype here designated from Maraynioc, Junin, Peru in the Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, examined.
Enoplognatha juninensis, Simon, 1894, Histoire Naturelle des Araignies, 1 : 578.
The specimen examined from, Pasco, Peru has the abdomen dark gray with a light area on each side on dorsum ; the venter is also dark



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I 8 Psyche [March
gray with a light area on each side between cpigynurn and spinnerets. The chelicerae have three large teeth on the promargin, a minute Figs, 1-5,
Enoplognutha maricopa new species. I. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 2. Epigvnuni. 3, 4. Left palus. 3. Ventral view. 4. Ectal view. 5. Left male chelicera, posterior view,
Figs. 6-8. E. ficruwiana Charnberlin. 6. Palpus (doubtful determination). 7. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 8, Epigynum. Figs. 9-10. E. puno new species. 9. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 10. Eoievnum.
~'iis. 11-13. E. jumens'- (Keysding). It. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 12, 13. Epigynum.
Figs. 14-15. E. sapfci new spec&. 14. Female genitalia, dorsal view. IS. Epigynum.
tooth on the posterior margin. The colulus is large, almost trans- parent white, with two setae from the base. Records. Peru. Pasto: near Huayllay, 4400 rn, 10 Aug. 1953,



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19621 Levi - Steatoda and Enoplopatha I9 0 (H. W. Koepcke, SMF) . Junin. Maraynioc, 0 paratype with 9 paratype (BMNH) .
Enoplognatha zapfei new species
Figures 14, I 5
Tyw Female from Putre, Province Tarapac;, Chile, Feb. 1948 (Avilis), in the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The species is named after Miss H. Zapfe of Santiago de Chile. Description. Carapace dark yellow, darker aroitnd anterior median eyes. Chelicerae red-brown. Sternum, legs dark yellow. Abdomen gray with darker gray mottled pattern on doi-sum and a pair of longitudinal lighter bands between genitalic area and spinnerets. Anterior median eyes slightly smaller than others. Anterior lateral eyes on slight tubercles. Anterior median eyes slightly less than one diameter apart, a little more than one diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes three-quarters diameter apart, two diameters from laterals. Chelicerae with three teeth on anterior margin, a blunt indistinct tooth posterior. Total length 9.2 mm. Carapace 4.5 mm long, 3.4 mm wide. First femur, 4.1 mm; patella and tibia, 5.0 mm; metatarsus, 3.4 mm ; tarsus, I .6 mm. Second patella and tibia, 4.3 mm ; third, 3.7 mm; fourth, 5.1 mm-
Diagnosis. This large species of Enoplognatha can be separated from E. juninensis by the lack of posterior lip in the opening of the depression of the epigynum (Fig. 15) and by lack of the internal coiled duct. The ducts of E. zapfei are heavily sclerotized adjacent to the seminal receptacles (Fig. 14).
Steatoda Sundevall
Steatoda Sundevall, 1833, Conspectus Arachnidurn, p. 16. Type species desig- nated by Thorell, 1869, On European Spiders, p. 93. 8. castanea (Clerck, 1757).
Diagnosis. Medium-sized to large theridiid spiders, usually dark in coloration. Colulus very large. Chelicerae armed with a tooth or several teeth on anterior margin.
But unlike Enoplognatha, it
has no teeth on the posterior margin of female chelicerae. Abdomen subspherical.
Males often with enlarged chelicerae and a sclerotized ring around pedicel on anterior end of abdomen. The abdomen of
most species has a white line around anterior of dorsum, in addition to other lines or spots (Levi and Levi, 1962). Note. The common species of North America were described in



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20 Psyche [March
a previous paper (Levi 1957b). In this paper the ventral view of the genitalia (cleared epigynum) was illustrated, not the dorsal as in most of my papers on theridiid spiders. Gertsch (1960) has taken issue with my treatment of species of the "fulva" group in the previous paper and has named several new species. However, insufficient ecological and life history data are available for the possible species involved to pel-m.it making a final decision now (Levi, 1960). Thus the only species recognized are those of my previous revision. Steatoda brasiliana Keyserling, I 884, Die Spinnen Amerikas Thei-idiidae, 2 ( I ) : I I 5, pi. 5, fig. 75, d. Male type from Rio de
Janeii-o, Brazil in the Naturhistorisches Museum, Vienna, examined is a male Steatoda bipunctata (Linn.) from Europe (NEW SYN- ONYMY). The female described by Keyserling in 1886 as 8. brasil'iana is probably a specimen of S. moesta (Keyserling). Species misplaced: Lithyphantes juninensis Keyserling = Enoplog- natha jununensts (Keyserling) .
Steatoda rubra Keysel-ling, 1886, Die Spirinen Amerikas, Theri- diidae, 2(2) : 239, pi. 20, fig. 294, 9. Female type from Blumenau, Brazil = Theridion rubra (Keyserling) .
Key to American Species of Steatoda
I a. Epigynurn with a prominent, wide, transverse bridge ; areas anterior and posterior to bridge shallow depressions ( 1g57b, figs. 43, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50,) ; palpus with thread-like embolus on venter, evenly curved, with a membrane inside embolus loop from base supporting a portion of embolus ( 1957b, figs. 32-41 ) ; North America .................................................. 5. fulva group ib. Epigynum without transverse bridge or if with bridge, then areas anterior and posterior to' it not depressed; embolus other- wise or if similar South American ......................................... 2 2a. Seminal receptacles thickened, sclerotized, coiled ends of ducts (1957b, figs. 88, 92, 98, 116) ; epigynum having a U-shaped depression ( 1957b,, figs. 105, 107- 109) 0,s a shallow circular depression containing anterior a deeper depression on each sid,e of a septum (rarely absent) ( 1957b, figs. 93, 97, 99-103) or epigynum as in 1957b, fig. 89; palpus with a prominent U- shaped radix on mesa1 side (1957b, figs. I 19, 124, 129, 134, 145, I 55) ; North America ....................... 8. bipunctata group Map 2.
Distribution of South American Steatoda species.



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22
2b.
3 a*
3b*
4a*
4b.
9.
5b.
6a.
6b.
7a-
7b.
8a.
8 b.
9a.
9b.
I oa.
lob.
I la.
11b.
I 2a.
12b.
Psyche [March
Seminal receptacles oval or spherical; epigynum and palpus .......................... otherwise or if similar, not North American 3
Males ........................................................................................ 4 Females .................................................................................... 17
Palpus with a large mesa1 projecting radix (1957b, figs. 59, 68) ............................................................................................ 5 Palpus otherwise ........................................................................ 6 Embolus short, radix longer than half length of bulb (1g57b, ............................
fig. 59) ; southern Canada to central Mexico ....................................................... Embolus long, radix less than half
68) ; southern Canada to central
eastern states ................................ Palpal tibia one and one-half times
S. dhaculata (DeGeer)
length of bulb ( 1g57b, fig.
Mexico, common in north-
S. americana (Emerton)
length of cymbiumi ( 1957b)
fig. 76) ; probably introduced and widespread in United States, rare in South America .............. S. triangulosa (Walckenaer) Palpal tibia as long as or shorter than cymb'ium .................... 7 Palpal embolus visible as a prominent loop supported by con- ductor ( iggb, fig. 73) ; probably cosmopolitan, Florida, Caribbean ........................ S. erigoniformis (0. P.-Cambridge) ........................................................................ Palpus otherwise 8
Palpus with a transverse, ventral embolus base and a prominent short thread-shaped embolus portion (1g57b, fig. 74) ; cosmo- politan ; coast states, wide-spread in Mexico and South America ........................................................... S. grossa (C. L. Koch) Palpus otherwise ................................................................... 9 Palpal embolus ventral, with a short distal hook as in 1957b, fig. 18 ; southern ^Mexico to southern Brazil ........................ ................................................. S. moesta (0. P.-Cambridge) .......................................................... Palpus otherwise 10
Palpus with biforked embolus (Fig. 22) ; northern Colombia .............................................................................. 8. rnarta 11. sp.
Palpus otherwise ................................................................ I I Palpus with spine on base of embolus and complex U-shaped radix (19570, fig. 1 I; Figs. 44-48) ; southern Mexico to southern Patagonia ....................... S. ancorata (Holmberg) Palpus otherwise ............................................................ I 2 Palpus with prominent ventral embolus (Fig. I 8) ; chelicerae tuberculate (Fig. 19) ; Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru to Chile .......................................................... 8. an'dina (Keyserling) Palpus and chelicerae otherwise ............................................ 1 3



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19621 Levi - Steatoda and Enoflognatha 23 Palpal embolus appearing as a tightly coiled structure supported ............
by the conductor (Fig. 30). Minas Gei-ais, Brazil ...................................................................... S. diamantina n. sp. .................................................................. Palpus otherwise I4
Palpus with a long narrow radix (in ventral view) whose axis is parallel to that of the cymbium (Fig. 27) ; Bolivia, Chile, .....................................
Argentina S. sabulosa (Tullgren)
............................................................ Palpus otherwise I 5
Palpal embolus small, on distal, ventral side of bulb (1957b, .....................
fig. 14) ; Mexico
S. quaesita (0. P.-Cambridge)
Palpus with embolus on ectal side or hidden in ventral view.. 16 Palpus with prominent ventral radix ( I g57b, fig. 27) ; southern California, Texas, Mexico ................... S. transversa (Banks) Palpus otherwise (1957b, fig. 30) ; Georgia, Gulf states, West ...................................................... Indies, Mexico to Venezuela
................................. S. q'uadrirnaculata (0. P.-Cambridge) ..................
Epigynum with a wrinkled area (Figs. 39, 43) 18
Epigynum with all parts smooth .......................................... 20 Epigynum with a shield having its anterior margin lobed (1957b, fig. 67) ; ducts coiled (ig~pb, fig. 66) ; southern Canada to central Mexico; common in northeastern states .... .............................................................. S. americana (Emerton) Epigynum without lobed anterior margin; ducts not coiled .. 19 Epigynum as in Figure 39; Chile ............. S. porteri (Simon) Epigynum as in Figure 43; southern Mexico to southern ............................................ Patagonia S. ancorata (Holmberg)
Epigynum with a light, transverse, oval, surrounded on sides and behind by a raised area (Fig. 26) ; Bolivia, Chile, Argentina ............................................................... S. sabulosa (Tullgren) .............................................................. Epigynum otherwise 2 I
Epigynum with a median lobe extending from anterior (Figs. Epigynum without anterior lobe ............................................ 27 Posterior margin of eGgynum heavily sclerotized and projecting ..........
in middle (Fig. 21), northern Colombia
S. nzarta n. sp.
Epigynum otherwise ................................................................ 23 Epigynum with a depression along posterior margin (19570, figs. 58, 72) ............................................................................ 24
Epigynum otherwise .............................................................. 25 Posterior median depression bordered on each side by a thorn



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24 Psyche [March
............
(1g57b, fig. 58) ; southern Canada to central Mexico S. albomaculata (De Geer)
........................................................ Posterior depression not bordered on sides (1957b, fig. 72) ; ................................................ cosmopolitan ; Florida, Caribbean .......................................... S. erigoniformis (0. P.-Cambridge) Epigynum with two widely separated depressions (Figs. 34, ..............................
35) ; southern Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina .............................................................. S. iheringi (Keyserling) Epigynum otherwise ................................................................ 26 Depression of epigynum bordered all around (Fig. 17) ; Vene- zuela, Ecuador, Peru to Chile ............ S. andina (Keyserling) Depression o'n each side of lobe not bordered behind (1957b, figs. 84, 85) ; cosm~opolitan, coast states, widespread in Mexico and South America ................................ S. grossa (C. L. Koch) Epigynum with a narrow, transverse bridge ( 1957b, fig. 81 ) ; probably introduced and widespread in United States and South America ...................................... S. triangulosa (Walckenaer) Epigynum otherwise .............................................................. 28 Epigynum with a median dark spot (rgs~b, fig. 17) ; southern Mexico to southern Brazil ........ S. moesta (0. P.-Cambridge) Epigynum otherwise ................................................................ 29 Epigynum with a posterior directed lobe, posterior to the opening ............................................ (Fig. 32) ; Peru
S. chinchipe n. sp.
Epigynum otherwise ................................................................ 30
Epigynum with a slit-like opening on each side (1g57b) fig. 20) ; Mexico ................................................................ S. saltensis Levi Epigynum otherwise ......................................................... 3 I Epigynum with shallow longitudinal oval depression (Fig. 29) ; Minas Gerais, Brazil .................................. S. diamantina n. sp. Epigynum otherwise ................................................................ 32 Epigynumi with a deep transverse depression (Fig. 24) ; Peru S. variipes (Keyserling)
.............................................................. Epigynum otherwise ................................................................ 33
Epigynum with two black spots on posterior margin (i95jb, fig. 24) ; southern California, Texas, Mexico .......................... S. transversa (Banks)
.................................................................. Epigynum otherwise ................................................................ 34
Epigynum with a pair of shallow depressions each with a black spot ( 1957b, fig. 29) ; Georgia, Gulf States, West Indies, Mexico to Venezuela .... S. quadrimaculata (0. P.-Cambridge) Epigynum as in 1957b, fig. 22 ; Mexico . . S. mituinnalis (Banks)



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Lev& Steatoda and Enoplognatha
Steatoda moesta (0. P.-Cambridge)
Asagena moesta 0. P.-Cambridge, 1896, Biologia Centrali-Americana, Araneidea, 1 :209, PI. 25, fig. 4,
9. Female type from Guatemala in the
British Museum, Natural History.
Steatoda moesta, Levi, 1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 117: 3, p. 379, figs.15-18, Q,$.
Distribution. Southern IVTexico to southern Brazil. Additional Records. Fmzuelo : "Caracas, Tovar," I 888 ( E. Simon, MNHN). Peru. H&nuco: 27 km N of Huinuco, Dec. 1954
(E. I. Schlinger, E. S. Ross, CAS) . San 'Martin: Tarapoto (MNHN) ; Moyobamba (MNHN). Brazil. Rio dc Janeiro: Mendes (Eidrnann, SMF) ; TeresOpolis (MNHN). Steatoda erigoniformis (0. P.-Cambridge) , new combination Theridion erigon'forme 0. P. - Cambridge, 1872, Proc. 2001. Soc. London, p. 284.
Female, male syntypes from Jordan in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford, examined.
Asaganella crigoniformis, Schenkel, 1937, Festschrift E. Strand, 3 : 381, fig. 3, 6'.
Lithyphantes septemmaculatus Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, 2(1) : 141, pi. 6, fig. 88,
Q. Female syntypes from "Denver in Columbia" collected by Marx. (Marx's labels are often wrong and the Denver type locality is undoubtedly an error). NEW SYNONYMY. Distribution. Cosmopolitan. Florida, Caribbean, Panama, Vene- zuela in America. Kaston ( I 948, Bull. Connecticut Geol. Nat. Hist. Surv. no. 70: 79)
reports a specimen from Connecticut. 0.
Kraus (in a letter) tells of a specimen from Japan in the Senckenberg Museum. It also has been found in the Near East. Additional Records. Panama Canal Zone: Gamboa, 7 Jan. 1958, d" (A. M. Chickering). British West Indies: Antigua: St. John, 1955 (A. M. Nadler, AMNH). Venezuela. '4rag11a : Tovar, 1888, 9 (E. Simon, MNHN). Carabobo: San Estebin, 1888, 9 5 (E. Simon, MNHN).
Steatoda triangulosa (Walckenaer)
Aranea triangulosa Walckenaer, 1802, Faune Parisienne, 2: 207. Type from Paris, France, lost.
Steatoda triangulosa, Levi, 1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 117 (3) : 407, figs. 75, 76, 80-82, Q $.
Disti-ihution. Central and southern Europe, southern Russia, Mediterranean, United States from Massachusetts to Oregon, south to southern Texas. The city-dwelling habit suggests that it has been



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26 Psyche [March
introduced in America. It has previously been reported from South America, but only one specimen was seen. Additional Records. Argentina. Santiago del Estero: Santiago del Estero, 12 June 1961, $ (J. Abalos) . Steatoda grossa (C. L. Koch)
Theridion grossum C. L. Koch,
1938, Die Arachniden, 4: 112, fig. 321, 9, Female types from Greece.
Steatoda punctilineata. Mello-Leit5o 1939, Rev. Suisse de Zool., 46:61, figs. 30, 31, 9. Two female syntypes from Leones, Argentina, in the Naturhis- torisches Museum, Basel. examined. NEW SYNONYMY. Steatoda grossa, ~ e h , 1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 117(3) : 404, figs. 74, 83-85, 9 8.
Note. Mello-LeitKo (1939) figure 31 is printed upside down; if it had been turned around the synonymy with the common S. grossa would, have been recognized earlier. Steatoda grossa females can be confused with females of S. andina.
Only details of the posterior
rim of the epigynum seem to' separate females of the two species. The male palpi, however, are very different. Natural History. The species has been collected in subtropical rain forests in Oxapampa, and under stones on guano islands. Distribution. Cosmopolitan ; along coast of United States, Mexico, South America.
Additional records. Ecuador. T'ungurahua: Ambato, June I 943 (H. E., D. L. Frizzell). Peru. Isl. Don Martin (Guano Isl.) (L. Pefia, SMF) ; Piura: Negritos (H. E., D. L. Frizzell). ? Ancash: Chimlbote, Feb. 1953 (W. We~rauch) . Pasco : Oxapampa, I 600 m, E of Oroga (W. Weyrauch). Chile. Antofagasta: Taltal (H. Zapfe). Coquimbo: La Serena (H. Zapfe) ; Los Vilos (H. Zapfe). Aconcagua: San Filipe (L. Peiia, ISNB).
Santiago: Santiago (H.
Zapfe) . Linares: Linares (L. Peiia, ISNB) . Malleco : Angol, 1950 (D. S. Bullock). Osorno: Osorno (L. Peiia, ISNB). Steatotda andina (Keyserling) , new combination Figures I 6- I 9
Lithyphantes andinus Keyserling, 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, Theridiidae, 2(1) : 132, pi. 6, fig. 82, 9 3. Male and female syntypes from Junin, Amable Maria, Lima and San Mateo, Peru in the Polish Academy Sciences, Warsaw. A female specimen determined by Keyserling, in the British Museum, Natural History, examined.
Description. Carapace, sternum reddish brown, legs lighter. . Abdomen purplish black with a narrow white line around sides, crossed



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19621 Levi - Steatoda and Enoplognatha 27 in front by a median narrow white line. Very variable, sometimes with a longitudinal white line or almost black. Venter with a lighter W-shaped mark and lighter spots on sides. Eyes subequal in size, anterior median eyes one diameter apart, one and one-half diameters from laterals. Posterior median eyes about one diameter apart, two diameters from. laterals. Chelicera of female with a blunt, fleshy tooth on anterior margin, that of male enlarged as in the genus Enoplognatha, with a large tooth on anterior margin (Fig. 19) ; there is no tooth, however, on posterior margin. Measurements of specimens from Lima, Peru. Total length of female 8.3 mm. Carapace, 3.7 mm long, 2.9 mm wide. First femur, 4.3 mm; at el la and tibia, 5.1 mm; metatarsus, 3.7 mm; tarsus,
1.6 mm. Second patella and tibia, 4.1
mm; third, 3.3 mm; fourth, 5.0 mm. Total length of male, 8.6 mm. Carapace, 4.2 mm long, 2.7 mm wide. First femur, 4.7 mm; patella and tibia, 5.5 mm; metatarsus, 4.3 mm; tarsus, 1.9 mm. Second
patella and tibia, 4.3 mm; third, 3.6 mm; fourth, 5.0 mm. Variation. The epigynum (fig. 17) is variable in proportion. A male from Chile has a shorter emholus than males examined from
central Peru.
Diagnosis. The more discrete posterior rim of the depression of the epigynum (Fig. 17) separates this species from S. grossa (1957b, figs. 84, 85) with which it may be confused. The palpus (Fig. 18) is very different from that of S. grossa. Natural History. Collected in stony grassland near Lake Junin, shrubs in dry valley in Cajamarca and in Eucalyptus forest in Ancash. Records. Venezuela. Aragua : Maracay ( SMF) . Ecuador. 1Wanabi: Manta (D. L. Frizzell). Guayas: Bafios de San Vincente, Santa Elena Peninsula (R. W. Landes) ; W of Guayaquil (R. W. Landes) ; Colonche (R. W. Landes) . Azuay : 22 km E of Cuenca (E. I. Schlinger, E. S. Ross). Peru. Piura: El Alto (R. Wells) ; Rio Quiroz (H. E., D. L. Frizzell) ; Negritos (H. S. M.) ; Pariiias Valley (H. E., D. L. Frizzell) ; Quebrada Mogollon (H. E., D. L. Frizzell) ; Mincora (H. E., D. L. Frizzell). Cajamarca: Caja- marca, 2700 m (W. Weyrauch) between Lives and Mirador, near San Miguel de Pallaques, 1050 m (H. W. Koepcke, SMF). Libertad: Otusco (E. I. Schlinger, E. S. Ross, AMNH). San Martin: Hara, 32 km SE of Moyobamba (F. Woytkowsld, AMNH). Ancash: Puna near Huarhs, 4300 m (W. Weyrauch, AMNH) ; Huaris (H. W. Koepcke, SMF). Hudnuco: 27 km S of San Rafael (E. I. Schlinger, E. S. Ross) ; Tingo Maria, 670 m (W. Weyrauch, AMNH). Lima:
3 km E of San Mateo (E. I.




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28 Psyche [March
Schlinger, E. S. Ross). San Mateo, 3000 m (W. Weyrauch, AMNH). Lima (H. E., D. L. Frizzell) ; Canta, 2800 m (W. Weyrauch) ; Matucana, 2300-2500 m (H. W. Koepcke, SMF) ; Atocongo Lomas, rocky hills (H. W. Koepcke, SMF). Jun'in: Tarma, 3 100 m (W. Weyrauch, AMNH). Laguna Algacocha, near Laguna Junin, 4300 m (H. W. Koepcke, SMF). Laguna Junin, 4140 m (H. W. Koepcke, SMF). Cuzco: Cuzco, 4000 m (J. C. Pallister, AMNH). Arequipa: Atiquipa, Chala, 200 m (W. Weyi-auch). Puno: 10 km S of Oroya (E .S. Ross, E. M. Michel- bacher, CAS). Chile. Tarapacd: Putre, (Avilis) ; Oasis de Miiiimiiie, (Avilis) .
Steatoda marta new species
Figures 20-22
Type. Male from Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Magdalena, Colombia (Dulm), in the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris (no. 18389). The specific name is a noun in apposition, after the type locality.
Description. Carapace, sternum, legs rich dark red-brown. Abdo- men purplish black with a median dorsal longitudinal white line and a white line around the anterior edge of the abdomen. Anterior median eyes slightly smaller than others, their diameter apart, one and one-half to two diameters from laterals. Posterior median eyes one and one-quarter diameters apart, two' diameters from laterals. Laterals separated by about their radius. Chelicerae of male cornicu- late, with a blunt tooth. Female chelicerae smooth with a short tooth on anterior margin. First and fourth legs subequal in length. Abdo- men of male with four sclerotized round spots on dorsum. Total length of male 7.2 mm.
Carapace 3.0 mm long, 2.3 mm wide. First patella and tibia, 3.5 mm; second, 2.9 mm; third, 2.5 mm. Fourth femur, 3.0 mm; patella and tibia, 3.7 mm; metatarsus, 2.5 mm; tarsus, 1.2 mm. Total length of female 8.0 mm. Carapace 3.2 mm~
long, 2.5 mm wide. First patella and tibia, 3.5 mm; second, 2.9 mm; third, 2.6 mm. Fourth femur, 3.3 mm~; patella and tibia, 4.0 mm; metatarsus, 2.5 mm; tarsus, 1.1 mm.
Diagnosis. This species is very close to Steatoda andina (Keyser- ling) but differs in having the embolus shorter with a spur, in having a smaller conductor, and having a median apophysis of different shape (Fig. 22). The female epigynum differs in having a scape in a shallow depression. The depression is not bordered. The posterior edge of the



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19621 Levi - Stratoda and Enop lognatha 29 -
Figs. 16-19. Steatoda andha (Keyserling). 16. Female genitaiia, (iorsai view. 17. Epigynum. IS. Left palpus. 19. Left rnaie chelicera, anterior view. Figs. 20-22, S. ma& new species. 20. Female genitalia, dorsal view, 21. Epigyilutn. 22. Palpus.
Figs. 23-24.
S. variipr] ( Keyserling) . 23, Female genitalia, dorsal view. 24. Epigynurn.
Figs. 25-27. S. sabutosa (Tuligren). 25. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 26. Epigynum. 27. Palpus.
FIRS. 28-30. S. diumuniina new species. 23. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 29. Epigynum. 30. Palpus.
Fim 31-32. S. cishch'tlie new species. 31. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 32. Epigynum.
Figs. 31-36. S. ikingi (Keyserling). 33. Female genitalia, dorsal view, 34, 35. Epieynum. 34. Type. 35. (Paraguay). 36. Female abdomen, dorsal . .
-.
view (Paraguay).




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30 Psyche [March
epigynum is heavily sclerotized (Fig. 2 I ) . The scape is sometimes subcircular, sometimes not constricted anteriorly (its sides being nearly parallel), and is sometimes constricted at its posterior point and widens again; its shape seems to be variable in different specimens collected together.
Records.
Several 9 paratypes from type collection. Steatoda sabulosa (Tullgi-en) , new combination Figures 25-27
Lithyphantes sabulosus Tullgren, 1901, Svenska Exped. Magellanslandern 2 (10) : 193, pi. I, fig. 3, $. Male type from Santa Cruz, in South Argentina, in the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum, Stockholm, examined. Steatoda albiornata Mello-Leitiio, 1940, Rev. Mus. La Plata, n.s., 2:36, fig. 34, Q. Female type from Valcheta, Rio Negro, Argentina in the Museo de la Plata, examined. NEW SYNONYMY.
Description. (Specimens from Magellanes, Chile) . Carapace, sternum, legs yellow-brown to reddish brown. Abdomen purplish black; dorsum of female abdomen with pigment missing in some areas; white line around anterior of abdomen on dorsum and median, dorsal, longitudinal white line which may be broken. Anterior median eyes slightly smaller than others, two-thirds diameter apart, two-thirds diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes a little less than a diameter apart, one diameter from laterals. The posterior median eyes of the male are slightly farther from laterals. Male chelicerae not large, with one large tooth, fang widened and short. Total length of female 10.5 mm.
Carapace 3.2 mm long, 2.9 mm wide. First patella and tibia 4.0 mm; second 2.9 mm; third 2.7 mm. Fourth femur 3.5 mm; patella and tibia 4.2 mm~; metatarsus 3.6 mm; tarsus 2.3 mm.
Total length of male 8.0 mm. Carapace 3.3 mm long, 2.5 mm wide.
First patella and tibia 4.0 mm; second 3.6 mm,; third 2.9 mm. Fourth femur 3.5 mm; patella and tibia 4.2 mm; metatarsus 3.1 mm ; tarsus 1.4 mm..
The internal female genitalia (Fig. 25) are heavily sclerotized. A female from northern Chile has the seminal receptacles slightly wider apart and the ducts forming a V rather than a circle. Record. Bolivia. La Paz: La Paz, (MNHN) ; 48 km N of Potosi, 22 Feb. 1951 (E. S. Ross, A. E. Michelbacher, CAS). Chile. Antofagasta: Tumbre, 3600 m, Cord. Antofagasta, Dec. 1955 (L. Pefia, ISNB) .
Santiago : Santiago (SMF) ; Los Valdes, 2000 m, Cordilleras near Santiago (G. Mann, AMNH). 71/fagaI/anes: Laguna Amarga, Natales, Dec. I 960, Q $ (L. Pefia) .



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Levi - Steatodaj and EnopZognatha
Steatoda iherirtgi (Keyserling) ) new combi~~ation Figures 33-36
Lithyphantes iheringi Keyserling, 1886, Die Spinnen Amerikas, Theridiidae, 2(2) 240, .pl. 20, fig. 295, 9. Female type from Rio Grande do Sul) Brazil) in the Brltish Museum, Natural History, examined. Lithyphantes cancellatus Mello-LeitZo, 1944, Rev. Mus. La Plata, ns.. 3 : 325, fig, 8, 9. Female type from Josi C, Paz, Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina in the Museo de la Plata, examined. NEW SYNONYMY. Description. Specimen from Paraguay. Cai-apace yellow-brown) cephalic area brown) sternum8 red-brown) legs yellow, ends of tibiae darker. Abdomen with two series of dark spots on dorsum; sides and area between postei-ioi- spots with some white pigment. Ventei-
darker with a small white mark just
posterior to the epigynum.
Anterior median eyes) slightly smaller than others) one diameter apart) one diameter fi-om laterals. Posterior median eyes three-quai-tei-s diameters apart) one and one-half diameters from laterals. Chelicerae
with one tooth on the anterior nmrgin. Legs quite thick) first equal in length to fourth. Epigynum (Figs. 34, 35) with a transverse fold. Internal genitalia difficult to study; the anterior ducts are very transparent and in the single specimen available) could not be seen completely. Total length of female type 2.9 mm. Carapace 1.30 mm long) 1.08 mm wide. First femur) 1.04 mm; patella and tibia) 1-43 mm ; m~etatarsus, 0.84 mm ; tarsus, 0.52 mm. Second patella and tibia, 1-10 mm ; third, 0.95 mm; fo~li-th) 1.50 mm. The palpus illustrated by Figure 48 may belong to the male of this species. It was collected with females of S. ancorata in Rio Grande do Sul and belongs to the Keyserling collection in the British Museum. Records. Parag:uay : Taquararapa, Alto Parana) 1908) 9 (AM NH). Arge~ntilna. Buenos Aires) $? (Latarte, h1NHN). Steatoda diamantina new species
Figures 28-30
Type.
Female fro~n lllina Sei-inha) Diamantina, klinas Gerais) Brazil) Decemlber 1944 (Llrs. E. Cohn), in the American lL1useun1 of Natural History. The specific name is a noun in apposition, named after the type locality.
Description. Carapace) stern~inl) legs red-brown. Abdomen black except for one or two thin jagged white lines around sides and anterior. A median, longitudinal) dorsal white line varies in thick- ness and has several short pairs of lateral branches. Eyes subequal in size) in female. Anterior median eyes two-thirds diameter apart,



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32 Psyche [March
Posterior ~nedian eyes their radius apart and one diameter from laterals. Anterior ~nedian eyes of male slightly larges than others, one-third diameter apart, one-quai-ter diameter from laterals, Posterior median eyes one-thii-d diameter apart) one diameter from laterals. Chelicerae of male with one tooth on anterior nlargin. First femora of male swollen arid corniculate on venter. Total length of male 6.6 mm. Carapace 3.3 nim long, 2.4 nim wide. First femur 4.3 mm; patella and tibia 3.9 mm; metatarsus 2.9 mm; tarsus 1.5 mm. Second patella and tibia 3.2 mm; third 2.7 nm; foul-th 3.9 nm. Total length of female 6.1 mm. Carapace 2.9 mm long, 2.1 mm wide. First femui- 3.5 mm ; patella and tibia 3.9 mm ; metatarsus 3.0 mm ; tassus I 4 mm. Second patella and tibia 2.9 mm; third 2.3 mm; fourth 3.5 mm. Diagnosis. This species is separated from other Steatoda by the epigynum (Fig. 29), which has a shalIow, oval to round depression, the anterior end of which is dark and contains the opening. The male can be separated by the structure of the palpus (Fig. 30). Records. Brazil. Sa~zta Catarkz: Nova Teutonia, lat 27' I I' S, long 52' 23' JV, 9, 8 (F, Plaumann, ShlF). Steatoda chinchipe new species
Figures 3 I, 32
Type. Female from Rio Chinchipe, San Ignacio, 800 m elev., Cajamarca, Pent, Jdy 1948 (JV. JVeyrauch) in the hluseum of Comlparative Zoology. The specific name is a noun in apposition) after the type locality.
Description. Carapace, stemim, legs brown. Abdomen evenly purplish black with a ivavy line around sides and anterior on dorsum; center of dorsum with a fine longitudinal white line having two crosslines, Anterior median eyes smallei- than other eyes. Anterior median eyes three-quarters their diameter apart, one diameter from laterals. Posterior median eyes their radius apart, slightly more than one diameter from laterals. Lateral eyes slightly separated. Total length 7.5 nxn. Carapace 3.2 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. First femur
3.5 mm; patella and tibia 4.2 nm ; metatarsus 2.7 mm; tarsus 1.3 mm~. Second patella and tibia 2.9 mm; third 2.2 mm; fourth 3.7 mm~. Diagnosis. The epigynum differs from that of other Steaioda. It has a raised circ~~lar area containing an anterior opening with a lip on three sides (Fig. 32). The internal genitalia (Fig. 3 I ) are heavily sclerotized.
Recordx. Ecuador. Tungurahua: Baiios, 7 May 1942 (H. E.



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19621 Levi - Steatoda and E noplognatha 33 Frizzell) ; 32 km SE of Ambato, 8 Feb. 1955 (E. I. Schlingei- and E. S. Ross, CAS) ; Rio Pastaza between Baiios and Mapoto, Aug. I 938 (W. C. Macintyre) .
Steatoda variipes (Keyserli~~g) , new conlbination Figures 23, 24
Theridium wariipes Keyserlingl 1884, Die Spinnen Amerikas, Theridiidae? 2 (1) : 93! pl. 4! fig. 61, 9. Female lectotypes here des!gnated from Amable Maria [Junin]! Peru in the Polish Academy of Science! Warsaw, examined. Descriptio~n.
Carapace rich brown, sternum yellow-brown with darker mai-gin and darker spot in middle. Legs yellow-brown with darker bands as wide as lighter arcas. Abdomen probably mottled black. Eyes about subequal in size, antei-ior m(edian eyes one diameter apart, one-quarter diametes from laterals; posterior ~nedian eyes one diameter apart, one-third diameter from laterals. hluscle impressions on abdomen and bases of setae slightly sclerotized. Colulus selatively small with two setae. Total length of female lectotype 5.0 mm; carapace 1.0 mm long, 1.9 nm wide. First femur 2.7 mm; patella and tibia 2.9 mm ; metatarsus I -6 mm ; tarsus 0.9 mm. Second patella and tibia 2.3 mm ; third 1.6 mm; fourth 2.4 mm. Record: One Q paratype with type.
Steatoda porteri (Simon), new combination Figures 37-39
Lithyphantes porteri Simon! 1900, Rev. Chileans, 4: 50. Female type from
Chafiarcillo, [Prov, AtacamaIl Chile! in the Musium National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, examined.
Description. Carapace, sternum, legs yellow-brown ; fourth leg dai-ker than others. Abdomen purplish black with dorsal white masks (Fig. 37) and a small white spot posterior to genital groove on ventei-. Anterior median eyes slightly smaller than others, one and one-half diameters apart, oIie diameter fro~n Iatei-als. Posterior median
eyes one diameter apart, slightly more than one diameter from laterals- One broad tooth on antei-ior margin of chelicerae. Foul-th leg slightly longer than first. Epigynum (Fig. 39) with a wrinkled knob pointing posterior. Total length 4.7 mm. Carapace, 1.8 mm long, 1.4 nm wide. First patella and tibia, 2.1 mm; second, I -7 nlm ; thisd, 1.4 mnl. Fourth femur 2.0 mm; patella and tibia, 2.4 mm; metatarsus, 1.6 mm; tarsus, 0.9 mm.
Record. Chile. Coquimbo: El Tofo, Sept. 1957 (H. Zapfe).



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Psyche [March
Figs. 37-39. Steatoda porteri (Simon). 37. Female abdomen, dorsal view, 38. Female genitalia, dorsal view.
39, Epigynum.
Figs. 40-47. S. ancorata (Holmberg). Fig. 40. Male carapace and chelicerae. Figs. 41, 42. Female genitalia, dorsal view. 43. Epigynum. 44-47. Palpus. 44. (northern part of range). 45. (southern Peru). 4-6. (Bolivia). 47. (southern Chile).
Fig. 48. S. ? iheringi (Keyserling), palpus. Steatotda ancorata ( Holmbesg), new combination Figures 40-47
Theridium ancoratum Holmberg, 1876, An. Agr. Rep. Argentina, 4: 72, fig. 16. Type from Argentina, lost.
?Lithyphantes wittatus Keyserhg, 1884? Die Spinnen Amerikas, Theridiidae, Z(1) : 134, pl. 6, fig. 83. Juv. type from Minas Gerais, Brazil, in the Hope Department of Entomology, Oxford, examined. NEW SYNONYMY. Lithyphantes nigrofemoratzis Keyserling, 1884, op. cit. Z(1) : 139, pl. 6, fig. 87, 9. Female type from Monte Rico, [Ayacucho], Peru, in the Polish Acad- emy of Sciences, Warsaw, examined. NEW SYNONYMY. Asagena alticeps Keyserling, 1886, op. cit. 2 (2) : 4, fig. 136, 8. Male type from N. Granada [Panama, Colombia, Venezuela] in the British Museum, Natural History. NEW SYNONYMY.
Lithyphantes laetus 0. P.-Cambridge, 1896, Biologia Centrali-Americana, Araneidea? 1 : 181, PI. 22, fig. 12, 8. Male type from Costa Rica, in the British Museum, Natural History. NEW SYNONYMY.



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19621 Levi - Steatodat and Enoplognatha 35 Asagena patagonica Tullgren, 1901, Svenska Exped. Magellanslandern 2: 194, pl. 15, fig. 4, Q.
Female type from Ultima Esperanza and Puerto Gallegus, Patagonia [? Magellanes, Chile] in the Naturhistoriska Riks- museum, Stockholm) examined. NEW SYNONYMY. Asagma melanomela Mello-Leit50, 19-44, Rev, Mus. La Plata, ns., 3:32s9 fig. 5, 8. Male type from Pergamino, [Buenos Aires], Argentina in the Museo de la Plata, examined. NEW SYNONYMY. Steatoda nipofemorata, Levi,
1957, Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool., 117(3) : 377, figs. 11-13, 9 8.
Note. This species is the most con?tmon Steatoda in Argentina, the type locality of T. ancoratuttz. Specinlens of this species from Argen- tina determined by Mello-Leitiio and by Birabh were named Lithyphalntes alncoratz~~n. The synonymy of L. vittat~~s ICeysei-ling 1-enlains uncertain, however, as the type is a juvenile and no specinlens of S. ancorata have been examined from 3Iinas Gerais, the type locality.
The palpi are variable in structure, (Figs, 44-47). Since the palpa1 sclerites are unusually complex, any slight change in position changes the appearance of the palpus.
Natural History. Specimens have been found "near rockpile in weathered shale" and "under flat rock)' in Bolivia. In llendoza, Argentina it has been found in chaparral area. Distribution. Southern SIexico to southern Patagonia. Additional records: f7enezuela.
Dist Federal: Cai-acas ( E. Simon,
LINHN) . Aragz~a : Tovar (E* Simon, h1N HN) . Colombia. 17alle: 10 km JV of Cali (E. I. Schlinger, E. S. Ross, CAS). Peru. Huknuco: Monz6n Valley, Tingo Maria (E. I. Schlinger, E. S. Ross, CAS) ; Huinuco (E. I. Schlinger, E. S. Ross, CAS). Ayacucho: Ayacucho (W. Weyi-auch) . Cuzco : Cuzco, 38m m (W. Weyrauch) ; Huadquifia, 1600 m (W. Weyrauch). Puno: 95 lcm N of Pun0 (E. S. Ross, A. E. Michelbachei-, CAS) ; Punol (W. Weyrauch) ; near- Juliaca, 3900 m (H. JV. ICoepcke, ShIF') ; 31azo Cruz, 3800 m (L. Pefia, ISNB) ; Camacani (L. Pefia, ISNB), Bolivia. Chaco (31NHX). La Paz: Timai-i, Nevada de Chicani ( LlNHN) ; La Paz +@3Q m
(R. JValsh, MNHX); 65 km, NE of La Paz (R. Walsh) ; Altiplano near Huayna Potos; Xltn., 5100 rn (K. Walsh). Chiquisaca: 26 km N of Camargo (E. S. Ross, A. E. Llichclbacher, CAS). Potosi: 45 lcm N of Potosi, 4300 m (E. S. Ross, A. E. Michelbacher, CAS) . Brazil. Parand: Bela Vista ( MNHN). Rio Grande do uZ ( BMNH ) . Paraguay, Asunci6n (MNHN ) . Caazapi: Pastoreo (D. Wees). Argentina. Jujzly: 8 lcm N of H~~macuaca, 2900 m (E. S. Ross, A. E. Michelbacher, CAS). Salta: Salta (Reimosei-) ; Cafayate ( $1. BirabGn) , Chmo : Resistencia



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36 Psyche [March
(MNHN). Cordoba: Alta Gracia (Bruch). Mendoza: 8 km SSW Estaci6n Cachenta, Dept. Lujin, 1500 m (B. Patterson). Buenos Aires: Necochea (M. Biraben) ; "Bahia" (MNHN) . Chile. Anto- fagasta: Tumbre, 3600-3700 m, Cord. Antofagasta (L. Peiia, ISNB). Magallanes: Cerro Castillo, Natales (L. Peiia) . GERTSCH, W. J.
1960. The fulva group of the spider genus Steatoda. Amer. Mus. Novitates, no. 1982, p. 1-48.
LEVI, H. w.
1957a. The spider genera Enoplognatha, Thoidion and Paidisca in America North of Mexico. Bull. Amer. Mus. Nat. Hist., 112 ( 1) : 1-123.
1957b. The spider genera Crustulina and Steatoda in North America, Central America and the West Indies. Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoo!. 117 (3) :367-424.
"1959"(1960). Problems in the spider genus Steatoda. Systematic Zool. 8 :107-116.
The American spiders of the genus Anclosimus. Trans. Amer. Micros. Soc. in press.
LEVI, H. W. and L. R. LEVI
1962.
The genera of the family Theridiidae. Bull. Mus. Comp. 2001. 127(1) :1-71.




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