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Stewart B. Peck.
The Catopinae (Coleoptera: Leiodidae) of Puerto Rico.
Psyche 77(2):237-242, 1970.

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Museum Comparative Zoology, Harvard University Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138
Only three species of Catopinae have been reported from the Greater Antillean Islands: Dksochaetus portoricensis Hatch 1933 from Puerto Rico; Ptomaphagus (Adeiops) dariingtoni Jeanne1 1936 from Cuba; and Proptomuphaginus apodemus Szymczakowski 1969 from Cuba. These three species are known from a total oi four specimens.
In December-January 1966-1967 I had the opportunity to collect in Puerto Rico and to begin field studies on the evolution and dis- tribution of West Indian Leiodidae. This paper reports on the Puerto Rican colIections. Seventeen days were spent in the field. Twelve collecting visits were made to
11 caves along the north
slope of the island. Carrion (rotted liver) and yeast baited pitfall traps were set in the moist forests of the eastern and central parts of the Island. The collecting stations yielding Catopinae are shown in fig. I. Collected were 230 Dissochaetus fiortoricensis and 60 specimens of a new species of Proptomu~huginus. Additional infor- mation is given for Cuban Proptonzaphaginus. Dissochaetus portoricensis Hatch 1933
Fig. 9
Type: I female, El Yunque, Puerto Rico, alt. 2950', Feb, 19~0, L, Stejneger leg., in U. S. National Museum. I have seen the tYP?.
Up to now the species was known only from the single type female. The co1lection of several males allows additional descrip- tion.
Males. Total length 2.1-2.3 mm., noticeably s~naller than females (total length 2.6-2.8 nlnl.). Aedeagus elongate, narrowing gradually to tip, small notch at tip. Parameres long and thin, slightly reaching beyond tip of aedeagiis, armed with two apical hairs. Both narrow and straight in side view. Internal sac with two thin chitinized pieces. Ligulae lacking.
Zoogeography. The species seems to belong to the spinipes group *Manuscript rrceived by the editor, May 6, 1970.


238 Psyche [June
of Jeannel (1936) which mostly inhabits South America. The two known Lesser Antillean Dissochaetus (granadensis Jeanne1 1936 of Granada and smithi Jeannel 1936 of St. Vincent) are in this group) and suggest initial colonization of Puerto Rico either directly from South America or indirectly by way of the Lesser Antilles. However) the possibility cannot be excluded of the beetles having reached P~erto Rico either directly or by way of other Greater Antillean Islands from Central America or hlexico. The Dissochaetus of these later three groups are yet too poorly known to evaluate the faunal relationships.
Collections. Puerto Rico. Luquillo Experimental Forest) (El Yunque area), 26.xii.1966-I .i. I 967, S. Peck, carrion t~ap, I male, I female. Toro Negro Forest, Cerro Dona Juana, 28.xii.1966-4.i. 1967) S, Peck, Iooom, yeast bait trap, 16 females; carrion bait trap) I male) 23 females; carrion bait traps, goom, 10 males, 170 females; carrion bait trap) 600 m, 3 males, 5 females. Figures 1-10.
Fig. 1, collecting sites on Puerto Rico yielding Catopinae. (A). Cueva de 10s Alfaros. (B). Empalme Cave. (C). Tor0 Negro Forest. (D). Cueva de Corozal. (E). Aguas Buenas Cave. (F). Luquillo Forest] (El Yunque). Fig. 2, dorsal surface aedeagus Proptomaphaginus darlingtoni. Fig. 3, lateral surface aedeagus P. dar1.ngtoni. Fig. 4, dorsal surface of tip of aedeagus P. apodemus. Fig. S1 dorsal surface aedeagus P. puertoricensis, Fig. 6, lateral surface aedeagus P. puertoricensis. Fig. 7, spermatheca of P. puertorkensis. Fig. 8, spermatheca of P. apodemus. Fig. 9, dorsal surface aedeagus Dissochaetus portoricensis. Fig. 10, antenna P. puertoricensis.


Ecology. The species is appreciably more abundant in the less wet forests of the Island's center.
Two hundred and twenty !eight
specimens were collected in five trap,s in the moist Tor0 Negro forests of the center of the Island) while only two specimens were collected in g traps in the wet eastern montane Luquillo forest. Genus P~opfonzapha~inus Szymczakowski
Diagnosis, Mesothoracic episternum not reaching coxal cavity- Meta.thoracic epimeron clearly transverse. Adale portar'si not ex- panded, Flattened protibia with row of short equal spines along outer margin, Bilobed aedeaga1 apex) orifice central on ventral surf ace.
Zoogeography. The genus is most clmely related to Ptomafiha- ginus (with 23 species limited to the Indo-Malayan region). When Szymczakowski ( I 969) described Proptomaphaginus and the 'Cuban species apodemus he pointed out the possible ancient significance of this disjunct distributional relationship. His views are not weakened by the addition of the following Puerto Rican species and the following transfer of Pto?na~hagus (Adelofis) darhgtoni to this genus.
Additional evidence is now available on the source of the original West Indian colonization of Proptomaphaginus or its ancestor. The genus occurs on the island of Hispaniola (I have seen one female of a possibly undescribed species in the MCZ collections). I did not find it in two weeks of field work in Jamaica in 1968. The genus occurs in hlexico (I found an undescribed edaphobitic species in a cave in the Mexican state of San Luis Potosi in 1969). It has not been found in Central America. I found none in field work in 1965 in Panama and Costa Rica or in 1969 in Guatemala) and none are in Dybas' extensive 1959 Panama co~lections in the Field hluseum. This pattern of occurrence on three Greater Antil- lean Islands and in Mexico and absence from Jamaica and Central America suggests initial derivation from Mexican lands) and not Central American lands by way of Jamaica. Proptomaphaginus puertoricensis new species Figs. 5-7, 10
Holotype. Male (deposited in Museum Comparative Zoology, Harvard University) MCZ type # 3 I 886). Puerto Rico ; Torro Negro Forest) Cerro Dona Jua,na) 28.xii. I 966-4.i. I 967, S. Peck, -
carrion trap, 900 m elev. Female allotype and 6 paratypes,, same data.


Diagnosis. Very similar to P. apodenzus and F. darZingtoni of Cuba in external appearance. Differing mostly in shape of internal male and female genital structures. The male aedeagus of puer- toricensis when seen in lateral view has higher and broader lateral extensions at its posterior (fig. 6), than darlingtoni (fig. 3) and afiodenzus. The aedeagus of ~4uert~ricensis in dorsal view its wider and shows more regularity in the external outer surfaces at its posterior (fig. 5) than in dmlingtoni (fig. 2) or @odenzus (fig. 4). The female spermatheca of puertoricensis is mose slender (fig. 7) than upodenzus (fig. 8).
Description of holotype. Length 1.70 mm, width 0.85 mm. Color reddish brown. Shape elongate oval, convex. Pubescence shoi-t and thick. Head width 0.55 mm. Eyes large, antesio-posterior diameter 4 times wider than distance between eye and antenna1 msertlon.
Antenna1 club flattened, segments as in fig. 10, Pronoturn convex, width 0.83 mm, length 0.48 mm, widest at point along length) posterior margin even. Distinct trmsverse striae. Hind margin slightly sinuous) hind angles dsawn out. Elytral length 1.20 mm, width 0.85 mm. Nari-owing at front, sides slightly curved ; apex truncate, slight]>- concave ; sutural angle rounded. Striae distinct, oblique.
Fully developed flight wings.
Mesosternal carina low.
Aedeagus tubular, broad, straight, with ventral orifice) bilobed lateral projections at apex.
Female paratype like male holotype, with thin, curved, ,sperms- theca.
Collections, Puerto Rico: Cueva de 10s Alfaros, Barrio Mora, near lsahcla, 4 July 1958, $1. W. Sanderson. 100 on bat guano ( Illinois Natural History Survey collection) . Ernpalme Cave) Bayaney, neas Ai-ecibo, 7.i. 1967, S. Peck, I j. 'Cueva de Corozal,
Corozal, 6.i.1967, S. Peck, 5 in cave carrion trap. Aguas Buenas Cave, Aguas Buenas, 3o.xii.1966, S. Feck, 26 on fi-uit bat guano. Aguas Buenas Cave, river passage, 13 Feb., 1968, B. Fenton, 10 on dead bat (in Canadian National Collection, Ottawa). Tor0 Negro Forest, Cerso Dona Juana, cai-rion baited pitfall ti-aps, 28.xii.1966- 4.i. 1967,
S. Peck, 6m m. elev., 2 ; 900 n1) 8 ; 1000 m, 2 ; yeast baited pitfall trap, 900 m, I. Luq~~illo Experimental Forest, car- rion pitfall traps, 26.xii.1966-1.i.1967. s. Peck, 300 m, 2; 500 m,


El t7unque and vicinitj-, 16-17 July 1958, Ill. JV. Sanderson, beating and sweeping, r ( Illinois Natui-a1 History Survey collection ) . Ecology. 3lost oi the cave collections were fi-on1 bat guano, found in association with theis lasvae, and not far from the cave entrance. It would seem that the lowland cave populations may now be at least partially isolated from the montane foi-est populations since the clearing and destruction of much of the lowland forest for agri- cultural purpaes. I visited Cueva de 10s Alfaros whei-e Sanderson found the beetles abundant, and found none. The Cerro Dona Juana forest collections were fi-om traps in moist closed-canopy forest with a good ground cover of herbaceous plants. Flooi- litter was abundant at highei- elevations. The beetles are more abundant in the Cei-so Dona Juana forest. Four carrion and one yeast baited trap in the Cesro Dona Juana forest caught 13 beetles, compared with 3 beetles from 6 carrion and 3 yeast traps in the Luquillo forest. A possible explanation for the lower catch in the montane Luquillo rain forest is that it may be too wet. Proptomaphaginus darlingtoni ( Jeannel) , new combination Figs. 2, 3.
Ptomaphagus (Adelops) darlingtoni Jeannel 1936: 92. Type :
I male (MCZ number 22521 ) . Cuba, Cienf~~egos, Sole- dad, ~28.1926, Darlington. "IVash. gravel bas small brook in w~ods".
Examination and dissection of the type show it to be a male (not a female as Jeannel stated, because of the narrow pro-tarsomeres, a female character in other Catopinae), and to have an aedeagus very similar to P. apodemus.
The similarity of the two species is very sti-iking. The only
available charactem to separate the~n are the smalles size of dar- /in@oni (1.6 mn~) comj~ared to apodet~us (2.0-2.2 mm), and a few minor details of the aedeagus. The aedeagus of darlington; is smaller and has a greates constriction at the base of the IatesaI lobes (arrow in fig. 2), than apodmus (fig. 4), the aedeagus tip is broad in darlingtoni between the lateral lobes and narrow in
apodemus so that a space shows along the lobes in theis interior side (arrow in fig. 4).
There is a possibility that darlingtoni and a~odwzus are con- ~pecific. Only further collecting will show if the differences are distinct between populations, or only extremes of variation within popuIations. The two localities are
130 km from each other, and
on opposite sides of the Island.


I believe the species is still known only from the type. I discount the records of Jeanne1 and Henrot (1949: 98) of the species from San Jose and Reventazon in Costa Rica. These specimens must be reexamined. Their identity will influence future zoogeographic conclusions.
Proptomaphaginus apodenzus Szymczakowski Fig. 8
Described from two males from Humbolt Cave, Punta Caguanes, Las Villas Province, Cuba. Through the kindness of Ing. Fernando de Zaya,s, Academy of Sciences, Havana, Cuba, I have had the opportunity to examine two additional males and two females. The female specimens allow me to illustrate the female sper- matheca (fig. 8) and compare it to that of P. puertoricensis. In apodenzus it is swollen at one end, and gradually curves and con- stricts to a point at the other end. The spermatheca of darlingtoni is unknown.
The specimens came from "Cueva Caguanes", May 1958, F. de. Zayas collector. They are either from the type cave populations, or from another cave very near by.
I wish to thank Miss Margaret Starr, formerly of the Inter- American university of Puerto Rico, for her assistance in the field work. Milton Sanderson graciously provided specimens from the Illinois Natural History Survey, Urbana. The field work was supported by Evolutionary Biology Training Grant GB3 I 67 of the National Science Foundation, Prof. Reed C. Rollins, principal investigator, Harvard University.
1933. Studies on the Le~todiridae (Catopidae) with descriptions of new species.
J. New York Ent. Soc. XLI: 187-238.
1936. Monographic des Catopidae. Mim. Mus. Nat. Hist. Natur., Paris, nouv. sir., 1, 433 pp.
1949. Les Colioptkres cavernicoles de la region des Appalaches. Notes Biospeologiques, IV : 9-11 5.
1969. Dicouverte d'un representant des Ptornaphaginini ii Cuba (avcc une esquisse de la systirnatique de la g6onirnie de cette tribu) (Coleoptera, Catopidae). Acta 2001. Cracoviensia, XIV (4) : 87-97.


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