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PSYCHE

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Jonathan Reiskind.
The South American Castianeirinae. I. The Genus Psellocoptus (Araneae: Clubionidae).
Psyche 78:193-202, 1971.

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THE SOUTH AMERICAN CASTIANEIRINAE. I.
THE GENUS PSELLOCOPTUS
(ARANEAE: CLUBIONIDAE)"
Department of Zoology,
University of Florida
Gainesville, Florida 32601
The Castianeirinae is a group of ground running spiders many of whom mimic ants or mutillid wasps. The subfamily is world-wide and predominantly tropical with a great abundance of species in the Neotropical Region. The North and Central American repre- sentatives were recently studied (Reiskind, 1969) and this paper represents the first portion of a revision of the South American fauna.
The genus Psellocoptus was based on a single species, Psellocoptus flavostriatus Simon, found in the Cordillera de la Costa in northern Venezuela. This bizarre and distinct genus has been reported as a "beautiful and large species from the forests of Venezuela which (is) found running rapidly on the trunks on trees" (Simon, 1897). Collections from Rancho Grande reveal two sympatric species and comparison with the type specimens from nearby Colonia Tovar indicate that there exist at least three species of Psellocoptus. The general form and characteristics of this genus make it quite distinct from any other genus whereas the three species are very similar to one another. The genus probably originated as an isolate from the more dominant and widespread genera- Myrmecium and Castianrira - that has fairly recently speciated in the topographically complex Cordillera de la Costa. No other genus of castianeirine spiders has been reported from this region of Venezuela though it is likely that Mazax (found in Trinidad and Panama) and the smaller species of Castianeira will be found there. It is also probable that ndditional species of Psellocoptus will be discovered with further field work.
I wish to thank Dr. W. J. Gertsch and Dr. J. A. L. Cooke for making the collections of the American Museum of Natural History available and Dr. M. Hubert and Dr. M. Vachon for the loan of the type material from the Museum national d'Histoire naturelle in p : ans.
*Research supported in part by a University of Florida Biomedical Sci- ences Grant provided by the National Institutes of Health. Manuscript received by the editor August 17, 1971.



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Psyche [September
Figs. 1-2. Pselloc~tus prodontus n. sp. 1. Male sternum. 2. Male cheli- cerae and eyes, anterior view.
Fig. 3. Psellocoptus buchlii n. sp. male chelicerae and eyes, anterior view.
(Scale line = 1 mm. Setae and sculpturation omitted.) Psellocofitus Simon, I 896
1'~cllocopt.u~ Simon, 1896, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belgium 40: 404. 8, Q. , -
lype-species by monotypy. Male lectotype designated from Colonia 'I'ovar, Venezuela (probably in Aragua State) ; in Museum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, examined.
Although Simon described the genus Psellocoptus as new in his Histoire naturelle des Araignies (18g7), the species bearing the generic name had been described a year earlier and so both genus and species name should be dated "1896." Generic Characteristics:
Moderately large castianeirine ground
running spider (7.5 to I 1.5 mm. in length). Carapace dark with a wide, domed cephalic region tapering to a flatter thoracic region having moderate depressions and lateral indentations between coxae I1 a,nd I11 and coxae I11 and IV, ending in a short petiole (Fig. 4). A small but distinct thoracic groove. Carapace with a distinct and complex pattern of white plumose hairs (Figs. 4 and 8) and some long thin simple setae on the cephalic region. Eyes arranged in two rows, the posterior row about one and one-half times as wide as the ante- rior row, the anterior row straight, the posterior row slightly re- curved; the posterior eyes equal, the anterior medians slightly larger than the ~osterior eyes, the anterior laterals much smaller (Figs. 2 and 3).
Abdomen elongate ovoid, generally brown dorsum with some lighter pigmentation markings and an anterior dorsal sclerite. Whole dor-
sum slightly shiny as if weakly sclerotized. A p~ttern consisting of



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Figs. 4-5.
Piellacoptus buchlii n. sp. 4. Male carapace, dorsal view. S. Male abdomen, dorsal view.
Figs. 6-7. Pselhcoftus fiawo~~atus Simon. 6. Male abdomen, dorsal view. 7. Male abdomen, right lateral view. Figs. 8-9. Piellacoptus frodoatw n. ~p. 8. Malt carapace, dord view. 9. Male abdomen, doraal view,
(Scale line = 3 mm. Setae ,and sculpturation omitted; white areaa are areas of white plumoae hair#, shaded areas darker ground color. Leg, spinnerets and book lung covet unshaded in Fig. 7.)



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196 Psyche
[September
bands and spots of white plumose hairs extends over the abdominal dorsum (Figs. 5-7 and 9).
Venter lighter than dorsum. Epigastric
sclerite red-brown with light yellow lung covers. Anterior dorsal abdominal setae absent.
Sternum shield-shaped with extensions between all coxae and ex- tremely narrowed between the fourth pair of coxae (Fig. I ). Chelicerae with two moderate retromargin teeth and three pro- margin teeth, the distal one much smaller, the median one slightly larger and the proximal slightly smaller than the retromargin teeth. Trochanter IV notch absent. Pedipalp in female thin and long- Leg< thin and long with long spines and sparce, long thin setae. Tibia I ventral spines very long and moderately thin with spination formulae variable but usually 4
( prolateral) -4 (retrolateral) , 5-4
or 5-5.
External epigynum with two moderately large semicircular open- ings directed laterally (Fig. 13). Internal structure with large an- terior and posterior spermathecal bulbs (Fig. 12). Male pedipalp with no tibia1 apophysis. Tarsus with a small globose genital bulb drawn out into an extremely long neck with a sclerotized embolus; a setae covered cymbium with a long medially directed spine near its base.
Diagnosis:
Psellocoptus can be distinguished from the two other South American genera in the Castianeirinae having indented cara- paces - Myrmecium and Sphecotypus - by its rounded anterior end and the relatively "unsegmented" carapace. Sphecotypus has a distinct cephalic region squared off in front whereas the carapace of A!fyrnzecium is highly modified with a rounded head region, narrow thoracic region and a long pedicel.
Of these three genera only
Myrmecium has the anterior portion of the abdomen narrowed to form a short, distinct petiole.
Range : Northern South America, apparently restricted to the Cordillera de la Costa of northern Venezuela. Key to the Males of Psellocofitus
la.
Front of chelicerae with large, medial outgrowths (Fig. 2) ; Genital Index (embolus length/bulb length X 100) greater than
I 4
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . prodontus r b. Front of chelicerae smooth ; Genital Index less than 14 . . . . . . 2 2a. Tibia I ventral spination 4 ( prolateral) -4 ( retrolateral) ; femur IV length equal to or greater than carapace length; carapace length less than 5 mm.; abdominal white hairs in continuous longitudinal bands on sides of dorsal sclerite (Fig. 6) .. ........ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . , . . . , . . . . . flavostriatus



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19711 Reiskind - Genus Psellocoptus I97
2b. Tibia I ventral spination usually 5-4; femur IV length less than carapace length; carapace length greater than 5 mm. ; abdominal white hairs a series of spots on sides of dorsal sclerite (Fig. 5) .............................................................................................. buchlii
Key to the Females of Psellocoptus
la. Tibia I ventral spination 4-4; epigynum surface smooth; ab- dominal white hairs in continuous longitudinal bands on sides of the dorsal sclerite; carapace length less than 4 mm ............ ..................................................................................... flavostriatus ib. Tibia I ventral spination usually 5-4 or 5-5; epigynum surface with horizontal ridges; abdominal white hairs in a series of spots on sides of the dorsal sclerite; carapace length more than 4 mm .................................................................................. buchlii Figs. 10-13. Psellocoptus buchlii n. sp. 10. Left palpus. 11. Embolus. 12. Internal epigynum, dorsal view. 13. External epigynum. Fig. 14.
Psellocoptus flavostriatus Simon, embolus. Figs. 15-16. Psellocoptus prodontus n. sp. 15. Left palpus. 16. Embolus. (Scale line for palpi = 1.0 mm; for epigyna = 0.5 rnm; for emboli = 0.25 mm. Setae omitted.)




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I 98 Psyche [September
The species descriptions should be considered in conjunction with the above generic description which applies to each of the three spe- cies.
The mea,surements made are the same as those made in the North and Central American revision (Reiskind, 1969) - all to the nearest 0.05 mm. except genitalic measurements which are to the nearest 0.01 mm.
The white plumose hair patterns (see Figs. 4-9) are often rubbed off and should be used dignostically with special care. Psello coptus flavostriatus Simon
Figures 6, 7, 14.
Psellocoptus flavostriatus Simon, 1896, Ann. Soc. Entomol. Belgium 40: 404, 8, $. Syntypes from Colonia Tovar, Venezuela (probably in Aragua State) ; in the Musium national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris, examined. Male lectotype chosen.
Male
Measurements. Based on lectotype and one male, lectotype listed first, range of both follows: carapace length 4.45 mm, 4.05-4.45 mm; carapace width 2.35 mm, 2.00-2.35 mm; carapace index (carapace width/carapace length X 100) 53, 50-53 ; sternum length 2.00 mm, 1.9 5-2.00 mm; sternum width 1.30 mm, 1.15-1.30 mm; sternum index (sternum width/sternum length X
100) 65, 60-65.
Femur IV length 4.55 mm, 4.25-4.55 mm; femur IV width (max. dorso-ventral) 0.50 mm, 0.45-0.50 mm; leg thickness index (femur IV width/femur IV length X 100) I 1.2, 10.5-1 1.2; leg length index (femur IV length/carapace length X 100) 103, 103-105. Abdomen length 4.90 mm, 4.7 5-4.90 mm ; abdomen width I .65 mm, I .40-I .65 mrn ; abdomen index (abdomen width/abdomen length X 100) 34, 29-34.
Description. Carapace red-brown; surface shiny and slightly granulated. Cephalic region width 8 I % of maximum carapace width. White plumose hair pattern similar to that in Figure 4 but some- what more extensive.
Dorsum of abdomen red-brown with some lighter speckling, with a moderate red-brown anterior dorsal sclerite extending about 32% the length of the abdomen. A complex white plumose hair pattern as illustrated in Figures 6 and 7. Area of epigastric sclerite around gonopore light yellow and shiny. A trace of an inframammilliary scleri te.
Sternum red-brown, slightly granulated surface with sparce long thin simple hairs.
Chelicerae red-brown. The apices of the endites and chelicerae with heavy scapulae. Face of chelicerae with scattered small tubercles.



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19711 Reiskind - Genus Pscllocoptus I99
Femora, trochanters and coxae of all legs yellow. Rest of legs yellow with light reddish brown pigmentation around the tibia-meta- tarsus joints. Also some light red-brown ~igmentation and dense hairs at the distal ends of the metatarsi of legs I11 and IV. Legs with thinner and slighter spines than in the female and other mem- bers of the genus. Tibia I ventral spination: 4-4. Pedipalp yellow with orange cymbium. Tarsus with a small glo- bose genital bulb drawn out into an extremely long neck with a mod- erately small, straight sclerotized embolus with a distinct twist at the tip (Fig. 14).
Female
Measurements. Based on two females: carapace length 3.80-3.90 mm ; carapace width I .85-I .95 mm ; carapace index 48-50; sternum length I .70-I .85 mm ; sternum width I .05-I .I 5 mm ; sternum index 60-62.
Femur IV length 3.55-3.70 mm ; femur IV width 0.40-0.45 mm ; leg thickness index I I .7-12.1; leg length index 93-96. Abdomen length 3.65-5.25 mm ; abdomen width I .55-I .95 mm ; abdomen index 3 7-43.
Description. Carapace red-brown; surface shiny and slightly gran- ulated. Cephalic region width 7'9-80% of maximum carapace width. White plumose hair pattern similar to that of male. Dorsum of abdomen reddish brown with some lighter speckling, with a small red-brown anterior dorsal sclerite extending about 25% the length of the abdomen. A complex white plumose hair pattern similar to! that of the male. A trace of an inframammiliary sclerite. Sternum red-brown, slightly granulated surface with sparce long thin simple hairs.
Chelicerae red-brown. The apices of the endites and chelicerae with heavy scopulae. Face of chelicerae smooth with a slight gran- ulation.
Femora, trochanters and coxae of all legs ell ow. Rest of legs yellow with light reddish brown pigmentation around the tibia- meta- tarsus joints. Also some light red-brown pigmentation and dense hairs at the distal ends of the metatarsi of legs I11 and IV. Legs with thinner and slighter spines than in P. buchlii. Tibia I ventral spination : 4-4.
External epigynum with two semicircular openings directed lat- erally similar to Fig. 13. Area between openings smooth and shiny. Internal structure with a la,rge anterior and posterior spermathecal bulb on each side, similar to that in Fig. 12.



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200 Psyche [September
Records.
All the specimens were collected by Simon at "Colonia Tovar" which is probably the city of that name in Aragua State and located at xo025'N and 67O17'W.
Psellocoptus buchlii new species
Figures 3-5, 10-13.
Holotype.
Male from Rancho Grande, near Maracay, Venezuela, 1946; in the American Museum of Natural History. The species is named after the late Harro Buchli.
Male
Measurements. Based on holotype and 4 males, holotype listed first, range of all follows : carapace length 5.60 mm, 5.20-5.80 mm ; carapace width 2.75 mm, 2.55-2.90 mm; carapace index 49, 48-52; sternum length 2.65 mm; 2.30-2.65 mm; sternum width 1.50 mm, 1.35-1.50 mm; sternum index 56, 56-60.
Femur IV length 5.25 mm, 4.75-5.25 mm; femur IV width 0.60 mm, 0.55-0.65 mm; leg thickness index I 1.7, v.3-12.9; leg length index 94, 87-94.
Abdomen length 5.60 mm, 4.35-5.60 mm; abdomen width 1.75 mm, 1.30-1.75 mm; abdomen index 31, 29-32.
Description. Carapace deep reddish-brown; surface shiny and slightly granulated. Cephalic region width 8349% of maximum carapace width. White plumose hair pattern as in Fig. 4. Dorsum of abdomen dark brown with some lighter speckling, with a moderate, dark red-brown anterior dorsal sclerite extending 3443% of the abdomen.
A white plumose hair pattern consisting of pairs of spots and horizontal bands - complete and incomplete - extend- ing over the dorsum from thick longitudinal lateral bands (Fig. 5). Scattered long, thin erect hairs on dorsum. Area of epigastic sclerite around gonopore orange and shiny. A trace of an inframammilliary sclerite.
Sternum deep reddish-brown, slightly gmnulated with sparce long thin simple hairs.
Chelicerae red-brown. The apices of the endites and chelicerae with heavy scopulae. Face of chelicerae with scattered small tubercles. Femora, trochanters and coxae of all legs yellow. Rest of legs
yellow with a thin red-brown retrolateral stripe on the patella-tibiae and metatarsi of all legs and a red-brown area around the tibia- metatarsus joints of legs 11, I11 and IV. Also some red-brown pigmentation and very dense hairs at the distal ends of the metatarsi of legs I11 and IV. Legs with shorter, slighter and sparcer spines than in female. Tibia I ventral spination: 5-4, but variable.



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197 11 Reiskind - Genus Psellocoptus 201 Pedipalp yellow with red-brown cymbium. Tarsus with a small globose genital bulb drawn out into an extremely long neck with a moderately small, straight sclerotized embolus with a distinct twist at the tip (Fig. 10 and 11).
Female
Measurements. Based on 7 females : carapace length 4.25-4.60 mm ; carapace width 2.10-2.20 mm ; carapace index 47-49 ; sternum length 2.00-2. I 5 mm ; sternum width I .I 5-1.25 mm ; sternum index 52-60.
Femur IV length 3.55-4.00 mm ; femur IV width 0.45-0.50 mm ; leg thickness index I I ,913.1 ; leg length index 83-91. Abdomen length 4.30-5. I 5 mm ; abdomen width I .75-2.55 mm ; abdomen index 38-52.
Description. Carapace deep maroon-brown surface heavily gran- ulated. Cephalic region width 7542% of maximum carapace width. White plumose hair pattern as in male.
Dorsum of abdomen brown-black, with a small dark red-brown dorsal sclerite extending 25-29% the length of the abdomen. A white plumose hair pattern consisting of pairs of spots and horizontal bands - complete and incomplete - extending over the dorsum from thick longitudinal lateral bands; similar to the male. Scattered long,
thin erect hairs on dorsum, but fewer than in the male. A trace of an inframammilliary sclerite.
Sternum deep reddish-brown, slightly granulated with sparce long thin simple hairs.
Chelicerae deep red-brown. The apices of the endites and cheli- cerae with heavy scopulae. Face of chelicerae shiny with some simple hairs and patches of white plumose hairs near the clypeus. Leg color and pattern as in the male. Tibia I ventral spination: usually 5-4 (54%) or 5-5 (39%)
External epigynum with two semicircular openings directed lat- erally (Fig. 13). Area between openings with a series of horizontal ridges. Internal structure with a large anterior and posterior sperma- thecal bulb on each side (Fig. 12).
Records.
All twelve specimens from Rancho Grande, a research station in the Cordillera de la Costa near Maracay, Venezuela. Psellocoptus prodontus new species
Figures I, 2, 8, 9, 15, 16.
Holotype.
Male from Rancho Grande, Venezuela, I 6-XII- I 954 (A. M. Nadler) ; in the American Museum of Natural History. The specific name is from the Greek meaning tooth in front.



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202 Psyche [September
Measurements.
Based on holotype and one male, holotype listed . -
first, range of both follows : carapace length 3.85 mm, 3.85-4.40 mm ; carapace width 2.10 mm, 2.10-2.35 mm; carapace index 54, 53-54; sternum length 1.70 mm, 1.70-2.10 mm; sternum width 1.10 mm, 1.10-1.35 mm ; sternum index 66, 64-66.
Femur IV length 3.75 mm, 3.75-4.15 mm; femur IV width 0.45 mm, 0.45-0.55 mm; leg thickness index 12.5, 12.5-13.6; leg length index 97, 94-97-
Abdominal measurements for holotype only: abdomen length 3.90
mm ; abdomen width 1.25 mm ; abdomen index 32. Description. Carapace maroon-brown, surface shiny (especially in cephalic region) and slightly granulated. Cephalic region width 75-8376 of maximum carapace width. White plumose hair pattern as in Fig. 8.
Dorsum of abdomen brown-black with a moderately small dark red-brown dorsal sclerite extending 35 % the length of the abdomen. A white plumose hair pattern consisting of pairs of spots and hori- zontal bands as in Fig. 9. Scattered long, thin erect simple hairs on dorsum. Area of epigastric sclerite around gonopore dark orange and shiny. A trace of an inframammilliary sclerite. Sternum deep reddish-brown, slightly granulated with sparce long thin simple hairs.
Chelicerae deep red-brown. The apices of the endites and chelicerae with heavy scopulae. Face of chelicerae shiny with horizontal ridges and scattered simple hairs with a large, blunt medial tooth on each (Fig. 2).
Femora, trochanters and coxae of all legs yellow. Rest of legs yellow with a thin red-brown retrolateral stripe on the patella-tibiae and metatarsi of all legs and a red-brown area around the tibia- metatarsus joints of legs 11, I11 and IV. Also some red-brown pigmentation and very dense hairs at the distal ends of the metatarsi of legs I11 and IV. Tibia I ventral spination: 5-4. Pedipalp yellow with dark red-brown cymbium which lightens to- wards distal end. Tarsus with a small globose genital bulb drawn out into an extremely long neck with a moderately long, thin, straight embolus having a distinct twist (Fig. I 5 and 16). Records.
Rancho Grande, a research station in the Cordillera de la Costa near Maracay, Venezuela.
REFERENCES
REISKIND, J.
1969. The Spider Subfamily Castianeirinae of North and Central Amer- ica (Araneae, Clubionidae). Bull. M. C. 2. 138(5): 163-325. SIMON, E.
1897. Histoire naturelle des Araignees. 2 (1) : 1-92.



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