Cambridge Entomological Club, 1874
PSYCHE

A Journal of Entomology

founded in 1874 by the Cambridge Entomological Club
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J. R. Matthews.
History of the Cambridge Entomological Club.
Psyche 81:3-37, 1974.

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HISTORY OF THE
CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB*
BY JANICE R. MATTHEWS
Department of Entomology
University of Georgia
Athens, Ga. 30601
On a Friday evening, January 9, 1874, Dr. Hermann A. Hagen, Professor of Entomology at Harvard College and Curator at the Museum of 'Comparative Zoology, invited a group of twelve men to his home at 7 Putnam Street in Cambridge, to consider the question of 'forming an entomological society. Most of them had been meeting informally for several years as a section of the Boston Society of Natural History, but some had more ambitious plans. Wanting to publish a journal, to meet outside of Boston, and to have members from all over the country, they desired to form "an organization independent of any other" - which was to be the Cambridge Entomological Club.
Among the twelve present, probably the two most influential that first evening were Dr. Hagen and Samuel Scudder [1,2]. Dr. Hagen was the first professor of entomology in the United States; he had left Germany in 1867 at the invitation of Louis Agassiz to take charge of the entomological department of the Museum of Comparative Zoology in Cambridge, and had been appointed to his professorship at Harvard in 1870, at the age of 53.f But although *This article is based on a term paper submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Arts in Teaching from Harvard University, 1967. The secretaries' records, minutes of the Club meetings, and other pertinent documents were placed at my disposal by the officers of the Club.
In the present account, quoted passages without specific references are taken directly from the minutes of the meetings. The original manuscript has been placed on permanent file with other Cambridge Entomological Club historical documents in the Museum of Comparative Zoology; it was revised and updated for publication here by the editor, F. M. Carpenter.
fEntomology had been recognized in America as a serious branch of science since the latter part of the eighteenth century, however. William Dandridge Peck [3], the first native born American entomologist, initiated the scientific study of insects at Harvard as that institution's first professor of natural history; as early as 1837 his student, Thaddeus W. Harris, while acting as librarian of Harvard College, gave a course in entomology that included brief field excursions [3,4]. Following Hagen's arrival in Cam- bridge, Harvard became a center of entomological activity, involving undergraduate and graduate students as well as more mature investigators.



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4 Psyche [March
Dr. Hagen had held his professorial position for four years now, his first course of lectures had been given only the previous summer, and its enrollment had 'been but one student, J. H. Conxtock; when he did formally teach, Dr. Hagen's courses consisted of "lectures, given at rare intervals to advanced students." As this might indicate, Dr. Hagen's principal work and real devotion were centered about the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and to him other interests were secondary. So although most influential in the formation of the Entomological Club, and an enthusiastic supporter of its activities, Dr. Hagen did not wish any responsibility toward running it. Thus, when at this first meeting Dr. Hagen declined to take the chair (as he declined, or resigned from every office for which he was ever pro- posed in the Club), Samuel Scudder was chosen as chairman. A graduate of Williams College and Harvard's Lawrence Scien- tific School, Samuel Scudder had been an assistant to Agassiz, and at the time of the Club's founding was nearly 38 years old. Once considered "the greatest Orthopterist America has produced," he also worked on the diurnal Lepidoptera and, as the' foremost American student of fossil insects in his time, served as paleontologist to i-he U.S. Geological Survey from 1886 to 1892 [2]. Scudder was also a competent editor and a bibliophile; he served as assistant librarian of Harvard College and librarian of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. Yet despite these and many other time consuming activities and before illness finally forced his withdrawal from active participation in 1903, he held various formal offices in the Cambridge Entomological Club for a total of eighteen years. Samuel Scudder having been appointed to the chair, the meeting moved on to the first order of business- the establishment of some guidelines for the new organization. Voting to keep it as informal as possible, "no more rules being made than are necessary," the members decided that the new Cambridge Entomological Club should have only one permanent officer, a secretary; to fill this position, they wisely chose 26 year old Benjamin Pickman Mann [5]. The son of Horace Mann, well known as a teacher and advocate of public schools, Benjamin had graduated from Harvard College only four years previously. He was a conscientious resea,rcher, a specialist in entomological literature and bibliography, who for many years to come would not only keep careful record of all Club proceedings, but serve as treasurer, librarian, and editor of the Club's publication. After Mann's appointment and the decision to hold the next meet- ing at Scudder's home, the Scientific Communications of the evening



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19741 Mattheax- Cambridge Entomological Club 5 began. Dr. Hagen commented on the discovery of fossil galls, ap- parently caused by insects, preserved on a twig in amber from Mary- land; this was of special interest to Hagen, since he had published extensively on Baltic amber insects while he was still in Germany. There then ensued a general discussion of "the senses by which in- sects are caused to assembly for sexual or other purposes." This must have been a particularly interesting discussion because of the varied backgrounds represented. For example, there was Dr. A. S. Packard, who had been one of Agassiz's students and who had just finished his third year as State Entomologist of Massachusetts [6]. He and Scudder were nearly the same .age and they had been close friends since their undergraduate days, but Packard's experiences had been more varied: he had been a surgeon in the Civil War, a Cus- todian of the Boston Society of Natural History, a lecturer on ento- mology at Massachusetts Agricultural College and Bowdoin 'College; and he had studied marine life along the southeastern coast, and had published his well-known "Guide to the Study of Insects." However, his active association with the Entomological Club was to be very brief, for he was appointed to a professorship at Brown University in 1878, a position which he held until his death in 1905. Then, in contrast, there was Edward Burgess, at the age of 26, a recent graduate of Harvard College and a former assistant in the Museum of Comparative Zoology; he was currently Instructor in Entomology at the College, giving the "course of elementary instruc- tion in the study of insects." Although he became known in ento- mological circles for his published accounts of insect morphology, Burgess later won renown for his contributions to naval architecture [7]. At about the same age, there was James H. Emerton, who had already foretold his life interest by collecting spiders at over a hun- dred localities in New England [8]. A skilled artist, he had recently finished the first of innumerable illustrations he would make for A. S. Packard, S. H. Scudder, and many other zoologists. A trip to Europe and a position as curator in the museum of the Peabody Academy of Science at Salem soon removed him from the Cambridge scene for a few years but he continued to publish extensively on spiders and to take an active part in the Entomological Club until his death in 1931. Another member was Samuel Henshaw; at the age of 22 and without college training, he was at thte time beginning to work on the insect collection at the Boston Society of Natural History; he subsequently became an assistant in entomology at the Museum of Comparative Zoology and later ( I 9 I 2- I 927) its director



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6 Psyche
[March
[g]. Of nearly identical age was George Dimmock, a Harvard fresh- man who had a strong interest in insects, especially Coleoptera and Lepidoptera.
Although on graduating from college he spent several years at the University of Leipzig in Germany, from which he re- ceived his doctorate, he later returned to Cambridge and for many years continued to be active in the Entomological Club [IO]. Young- est of all the founders of the Club was Herbert K. Morrison, only 19 years old, an energetic and serious student of noctuid moths. His experience on the first of the Club's excursions to the White Moun- tains in New Hampshire, a few months later, induced him to become a professional insect collector. During the next decade, he collected extensively in the United States, especially in such little-known re- gions as Washington Territory, Arizona, New Mexico and Nevada, and he 'furnished countless specimens of many orders to specialists in this country and Europe. His death at the early age of 31 terminated a brilliant entomological career [I I 1. Also at this first meeting there was a European coleopterist, Eugene A. Schwarz. Born in Germany, he received his training at the Uni- versities of Breslau and Leipzig. In 1872, at the age of 28, he came to the Museum of Comparative Zoology as an assistant to Hagen. He was to stay in Cambridge only a few years, however, leaving in 1875 on several collecting trips and finally joining other entomolo- gists in the U.S. Department of Agriculture in Washington, where he remained until his death in 1928 [12]. Very little can be said about the two remaining members present at the meeting. E. P. Austin, who was in the mining business, was an amateur coleopterist and published several papers on beetles in the course of the next few years, but he was not active in the Clulb after 1882. Even less is known of J. C. Munro, who lived in Lexington; he appears not to have attended any other meetings of the Club. One individual, George R. Crotch, although not present at the first meeting, or in fact any other meeting of the Club, was regarded by all as one of the founders. He had become interested in insects, especially Coleoptera, while an undergraduate at Cambridge Uni- versity in England. He had collected extensively in Europe and in late 1872 he had come to this country to collect insects in the western states. He was a very energetic and enthusiastic entomologist and a prolific writer [13]. In late 1873, at the age of 31, he accepted a position as assistant at the Museum with Hagen. By the end of that



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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entornological Club 7



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8 Psyche
[March
year, however, he had developed tuberculosis and was unable to attend the first meeting of the Club. He died six months later.* At the second meeting,
held at Scudder's house (156 Brattle
Street), there were discussions of such topics as the identity of a borer destroying an elm tree at Henry W. Longfellow's house (Hagen), of the metamorphosis of the Saturniidae (Morrison) and of the preparation of lepidopterous larvae for preservation (Hagen, Scudder, Morrison). Seven new members were elected : J. A. Allen, C. E. Hamlin, and C. R. Osten Sacken, all assistants at the Mu- seum; Dr. Walter Faxon, curator at the Museum; H. G. Hubbard and Roland Thaxter, both Harvard undergraduates; and C. P. Whitney, of Milford, New Hampshire, the first non-resident mem- ber. Osten Sacken began collecting insects, especially Diptera, when he was a boy in Russia; he was on the staff of the Russian Legation in this country for 27 years but at the age of 45, in 1873, he resigned to become an assistant to Hagen. He was an active participant in the Entomological Club for the entire period during which he was working at the Museum, but after experiencing two winters in Cambridge he moved to Rhode Island (a choice "influenced by the temperate winter-climate") ; and in 1877, his work on the Diptera of North America finished, he returned to Europe [14]. Hubbard became acquainted with E. A. Schwarz at the meetings of the Club and shortly after they formed a collecting team, ultimately resulting in the famous "Hubbard and Schwarz" collection of Coleoptera [ I 51. The other undergraduate, Thaxter, started as an entomologist and was active in the Club for many years, his first ten papers being published in Psyche. However, his interest was directed by Pro- fessor Farlow towards fungi parasitic on insects, and he subsequently became Professor of Cryptogamic Botany at Harvard, with most of his research being on these parasitic fungi, especially the Laboul- beniales.
After the third meeting, the Cambridge Entomological Club gathered at a little building nicknamed the "en~tomologicon," situated in the backyard of B. P. Mann's residence at 19 Follen Street [16]. These early meetings had no ~lanned program; at each meeting, a different member was chosen chairman and the minutes and acquisi- tions to the Club's library were read. The remainder of the meeting was then opened to general discussion and the exhibition of new *The list of signatures of the founding members in the minutes of the first meeting includes a line that reads: "This was to have been the place for the name of George Robert Crotch, Cambridge, England."



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Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club
New - England
JOURNAL OF EDUCATION.
Boston, Mass., August 21, 1875.
The Cambridge Entomological Club.
-
CAMI* 01: THE CAMISRIDGK ENTOMOLOGICAL CI,U~:, 1 M'r. WASHINGTON, July, tiS75. (
MR. EDITOR :-This is the first uncomfortable clay we have had. The clouds rise from tlie valley and descend from the summit by turns, driven by tlie shifting currents of air, and we get more of the fog and drizzly showers here on the middle of the mountain than they have either above or below us. Once in a while we catch a glimpse uf Mt. Carter, with half a dozen little clouds play- ing a stately game of tag among his green ravines, or of the Glen House in the sunny valley, but it is only for an instant, and though we can hear the stage rattling along half a mile overhead, we have not seen the road above the trees since sunrise. Alter passing the five-mile post an extensive view is opened to- ward Conway, taking in several very picturesque mountains and lakes, the summit of Mt. Washington tower on the right, and in the middle distance tlie rugged sides of the south wall of Tucker- man's ravine. Here is the beginning of the habitat of the Mount- ain ISuttertly, a species peculiar to this locality and eagerly sought by nearly all our party. They have the curious habit of flattening their wings down upon the ground or rock when they alight tt. avoid the wind, but such is the force of habit that they do so when it is a calm also, raising them slowly afterwards as if it were a sec- ond thought. The caterpillars live on a coarse kind of sedge which grows here.
Proceeding to the summit we arrived in season to witness the ascent of the singular looking little engine and car. The engine being built for up-hill work seems, as one of the party aptly ex- pressed it, to " tip down" as soon as it comes on the piece of level track in part of the platform. Most of us, after a rapid glance at three States and a hundred lakes and rivers, devoted our time to liunting Alpine beetles which abound under the rocks. Nearly all these are species peculiar to high mountains, but on fair days many butterflies, flies, and wasps wander up from the valleys. Return- ing by moonlight, we did aml>& justice to the fried hominy and syrup which the stay-at-homes had provided, and at ten o'clock when the rain came splashing downin torrents, most of us were too drowsy to think that the morrow's projected trip to Tucker- nail's ravine must be abandoned.
Yours truly, WAITER 110x1 K.
Portion of a letter written by Club member Walter Hoxie while at the C.E.C. camp, Mt. Washington, July, 1875, and published in the New-England Journal of Education. [Copy in C.E.C. archives.]



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10 Psyche [March
materials and curiosities. For its first three years, the Club continued in this strictly informal manner, and included not only regular meet- ings but excursions to areas df entomological interest. At the 7th meeting, July, 1874, "the Chairman had to be con- tented with sitting on a rock instead of a chair, a, feat which he performed with sufficient grace and dignity, wrapped in a blanket." This peculiar situation occurred because, during the summer of 1874, an "Entomologists' Camp" was held on Mt. Washington in New Hampshire, a "quarter of a mile below the Halfway House and far enough into the woods to be out of sight of the road." The party, including members and non-members alike, left Boston by Portland steamer, and remained in New Hampshire for almost a month; the expenses, including round-trip fare from Boston, were about twenty dollars apiece, and provisions, tents, etc., were provided by the Club Excursion Committee - Dimmock, Austin and Mann. A regular Club meeting was held, although it was "several times disturbed by Mr. Morrison's frantic attempts to capture the moths attracted by the sole luminary of the occasion, his own lantern." But in the main, these summer excursions were light-hearted affairs, and when the next Mt. Washington announcement, for July, 1875, stated that "members may invite the attendance of ladies," the ten men who appeared at the meeting had fourteen women with them. In the early years, there was no intention to limit place of meetings, which were often held outside the borders of Massachusetts. Nor was there distinction made between resid'ent and non-resident mem- bers. Both of these policies speedily changed the Club from a local organization to one including members from many parts of the coun- try. By January, 1879, the secretary reported 47 members residing outside of New England, and only 19 within the area, most of them in the vicinity of Boston and Cambridge. At the fourth meeting, on April 10, 1874, Samuel Scudder pro- posed that the Cambridge Entomological Club should begin publica- tion of a monthly journal. A lively and lengthy discussion followed this proposal, ending in the decision to undertake such a project. The title of this new "Organ of the Cambridge Entomological Club,'' proposed by Scudder, was to be Psyche, derived from the Greek word for butterfly.
B.
P. Mann was elected as the editor for this new publication and "charged with the execution of all but the scientific



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19741
Matthews - Cam bridge Entomological Club Camp of the Cambridge Ento~alogical Ckb, HALF-WAY HOUSE,
Mt. Washington, N. H.
All matters relating to tents, their location, etc. will be atten- ded to by
B. PICKMAN MANN, Camp Master, C. E. C.
NO SUGARING OF TREES
ALLOWED WITHIN 500 FEET
OF THE CAMP!!!
- -
--
Memorabilia of the Mt. Washington camp of the Entomological Club, 1874 and 1875. Top: letterhead of camp stationery; middle and bottom: reproductions of signs posted at the camp. work, which latter the members were engaged to supply." The first number, to consist of four pages, was to be ready by the next monthly meeting of the Club, and the subscription price was set at one dollar per year.
The Club thus began Volume I of Psyche (which, as completed, covers the years 1874-1876), as a place for publishing "biological contributions upon Arthropoda from any competent per- son," and miscellaneous entomological information, while assiduously avoiding "all discussion of vexed questions." However, economic entomology and taxonomic descriptions were less 'favored than con- tributions to general anatomy and biological entomology. But the most important part of Psyche, in the opinion of the founders, was to be the Bibliographic Record. Through this the Club set out ambitiously to record all writings upon entomology published in North America, and all foreign writings upon North American entomology, from the beginning of the year 1874, with a brief note on the contents of each. The original model for the Bibliographical



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12 Psyche [March
Record was clearly Hagen's Bibliotheca entomologica, which ap- peared in two volumes in I 862 and 1863. The position of Psyche in the history of the Cambridge Entomo- logical Club was to be a paradoxical one, for while it brought the Club into a position of national renown, at the same time it led to financial problems. Accordingly, early in 1876, the Club voted to establish annual dues of $2 for New England members and also designated a committee to raise a publication fund for Psyche, "the principal of the fund to be invested in trust securities" and the income to be used for the publications of the Club. A year later, January 12, 1877, there being no financial improvement and nothing in the publication fund, it was decided that additional measures should be
"taken to increase the effectiveness of
the work of the
Club and to obtain money to defray the expenses of the Club and of the publication of Psyche." Scudder's proposal, which was adopted, was that' "an act of incorporation should be performed" and he ad- vised the adoption by the Club of a Constitution and By-laws, "which must be in force as a preliminary to the act of incorporation." The Constitution and By-laws were promptly approved. At the following meeting, February 9, 1877, with a Justice of the Peace for Middle- sex County in attendance, Scudder was elected President and Mann was elected Secretary and Treasurer, and these officers and the mem- bers of the executive committee signed the agreement of association. The Secretary of the Commonwealth, Henry B. Pierce, formally signed the Certificate of Incorporation on March 9, 1877.* At the time o,f incorporation of the Club there were 48 members, half of the number being resident in the Boston-Cambridge area. The meetings were well attended, with an average olf I I memb)ers in addition to a few guests, and they were active affairs, having lively discussions. Most meetings were held at various members' residences, though some were held at an office that Scudder used for editing his journal, Science. Many additional non-resident entomologists were *The Corporation was established according to the provisions of Chapter 375 of the Acts of the General Court of Massachusetts, passed in the same year as the founding of the Club, 1874.
The incorporation apparently had
no effect on the Club.
No annual reports of the financial holdings of the Club were ever submitted to the Secretary of the Commonwealth, as re- quired by law, and on March 24, 1964, eighty-seven years later, the Secre- tary of the Commonwealth dissolved the Corporation, in accordance with Chapter 180, section 26A, of the General Laws. Revival of the Corporation
is, however, provided for in the legislative actions- Editor



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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 13 Samuel Scudder's study in the yard of his house, 156 Brattle St., Cam- bridge. Consisting of a single large room, it included an extensive cabinet of insect drawers on one wall, a fireplace, and book shelves on two walls. The Cambridge Entomological Club held virtually all of its meetings here from. 1888-1901, [Photograph, probably taken about 1890, in M.C.Z. archives.] elected to membership, even some as officers of the Club, presumably as a means of increasing subscriptions to Psyche. One of the major interests of the members at this time, apart from Psyche, was the Club Library, the goal being to have in one place as nearly complete a collection of entomological publications as possible for the use of the members. This is not surprising, since both Scudder and Mann were bibliophiles. At first the secretary of the Club had the respon- sibility of recording all these accessions but in 1880 a librarian was elected. By 1886 the Club library included 1652 volumes and sepa- rates, which were at first housed in Mann's office but later transferred to Scudder's study.
By 1890 the membership of the Club had changed greatly. Mana had left Cambridge permanently in 1887 to do bibliographic work for the Federal Department of Agriculture; and several other of the original members, including Austin, Dimmock, Morrison, Pack- ard and Schwarz, had moved away from the Cambridge area, most



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14 Psyche [March
of them beyond New England. Financial problems at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, following Agassiz's death, reduced the funds available for assistants. Hagen, though he lived for another three years, was stricken with paralysis in 1890 and the February meeting of that year was the last he attended. During the period from I 890 to 1900, when the meetings were held in Scudder's study, only five resident members were elected to the Club, but four of these were to play a most important part in the history of the or- ganization. One of them, A. P. Morse, then 28 years of age, was an assistant in the zoology department of Wellesley College; later he became associated with the Boston Society of Natural History, and still later with the Carnegie Institution of Washington, as a specialist in Orthoptera. He continued to be active in the Ento- mological Club for a total of 43 years, until his health failed in 1935 [17]. Another of the new members was F. C. Bowditch, an amateur coleopterist with special interests in the Chrysomelidae; in the course of his life he built up an extensive and important collection of the Chrysomelidae of the world, now at the Museum of Compara- tive Zoology [18]. The third of the members was J. W. Folsom, who was active in the Club while he was a graduate student at Harvard University. His early interests were in morphology and physiology of insects and he later taught entomology at the Univer- sity of Illinois before becoming associated with the U.S. Bureau of Entomology [19]. The fourth of this group was W. L. W. Field, who joined the Club at the age of 19, while he was a first year student in Harvard College. He was an enthusiastic lepidopterist and published several papers in Psyche on inheritance in butterflies!* He attended meetings of the Club regularly and, as editor of Psyche from 1904-1909, was responsible for making significant improvements in its nature and content. Field did not continue in entomology, professionally, but taught biology at Milton Academy until 1917, when he became headmaster,
a position
that he held until 1942.
These four members, in addition to Scudder, Henshaw and Roland Hayward (an amateur coleopterist who joined the Club in 1879 [20]), were the only individuals that attended the Club meetings *At the Club's meeting in September, 1907, Professor William Bateson of Cambridge University, England, was scheduled to be the speaker; last minute changes prevented his coming, so W. L. W. Field "gave an inter- esting talk on the breeding experiments" that were being conducted by Bateson, who has "thus brought to the attention of the world again the long-neglected or forgotten Hereditary Laws discovered by Mendel."



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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 1.5 from 1900 to 1903.
The average attendance at these meetings, also held in Scudder's study, was between three and four. Just prior to 1900, another entomological club was formed, this time in the city of Boston. The moving force for this was Mr. H. H. Newcomb, an amateur lepidopterist and general insect collector. An organizational meeting was held on November 24, 1899, in his office on Court Street, Boston. The ten who were present were enthusiastic amateurs; most were in business or law, although a few were college students, not yet established professionally. W. L. W. Field, already a member of the Cambridge Club, was one of the ten and served as secretary of the new club for the three years of its existence. At their second meeting, the members decided on the name Harris Club, 'in honor olf Thaddeus William Harris, eminent among early Ameri- can Entomologists, whose entire life was spent in the neigh~borhod of Boston."*
In many ways the Harris Club paralleled the earlier days of the Cambridge Club. From the beginning, the members agreed "that the organization should be as informal as possible." The constitution generally expressed the same goals as that of the Cambridge Club. And as did its counterpart, the Harris Club had a library, but of a much less formal and extensive nature. They were an extremely enthusiastic group and held several field excursions - only in their case to Mt. Katahdin in Maine. By 1903 the Harris Club included 41 local members, although the average attendance at the meetings for the previous year had been only 12. As Field noted in one of his annual reports, there had been a progressive decrease in the per- centage of members attending as the total membership increased. Field undoubtedly provided a liaison with the Cambridge Club and was almost certainly responsible for the suggestion that the Harris Club merge with the older organization. On January 13, 1903, Field and Newcomb proposed :
"That the Harris Club be merged in the Cambridge Entomologi- cal
Club, all members of the Harris Club of record January 13, 1903, to be nominated on one ballot for membership in the Cam- bridge Entomological Club. The latter is an incorporated Club with a long and distinguished list of members, past and present. *This was not the same organization as the Harris Entomological Club, which was founded in 1864 as a section of the Boston Society of Natural History and which was discontinued in 1886.



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Psyche [March
It has a Publication Funid, and maintains a monthly journal, Psyche. It is believed by many local entomologists that one large club will be better than two small ones
and that the members of the Harris
Club will find many advantages in an alliance with the older or- ganization. If the plan is carried out, the Cambridge Entomological Club will hereafter hold regular meetings in Boston." This was unanimously voted by the Harris Club and at the February 13 meeting of the Cambridge Club the 38 active members of the Harris Club were nominated by Field and Hayward for membership. At the next meeting, March 13, all were elected, with only Field, Hayward and Bowditch (all amateurs) representing the Cambridge Entomological Club, Scudder being unable to take part because of his paralysis.
The change in the number and type of members rapidly led to a change in the nature of the Cambridge Entomological Club. The concept of a Club library very shortly came under critical examina- tion, in part because of Scudder's illness and of the necessity of mov- ing the library from his study. In three months the library com- mittee, with Field as chairman, recommended that the Club library turn over whatever volumes the Boston Society of Natural History desired for its library, and to dispose of the rest among its members by auction. Thus, by a series of auctions presided over by H. H. Newcomb, most of the library was gradually disposed of at ridicu- lously low prices, until in 1909 the remaining works were sold for twenty dollars to a new member, W. M. Wheeler. At the October meeting, 1903, the members considered the future of Psyche, which had been edited since 1891 by Samuel Henshaw.* A committee chaired by A. P. Morse, and including Bolster, Field, and Henshaw, was appointed to consider whether or not to continue its publication. In December, Field reported that "the committee was thoroughly in favor of maintaining Psyche as the journal of the Club and was ready to assume charge of the journal if that was the pleas- ure of the Club." It was and the editorship was assumed by W. L. W. Field; in November, 1906, the Club members discussed the Bib- liographic Record, which had been the main part of the journal under Mann and Scudder, and decided to discontinue it and to devote the space to contributors' articles.
Other changes also began to manifest themselves. After 1903 the Club began to possess a very local outlook; the attempt to maintain a wide non-resident membership appears to have been abandoned. The attention of the Cambridge Entomological Club from 1904 to



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Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club
CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB.
Regular meeting of the Club Friday, 14 Dec. 1883, at 7.45 p. m. Mrs. At K. Dimmock will show a collection of insects from Betula alba (the
white birch).
Mr. G. Dimmock will dtwribe a new modeof making preparations to show the double nature of the wing-membrane of insects, and will show sonw inicro- scopieal preparations of other parts of insects. The meeting will be held at the Secretary's house, 54 Sacramento street, Cambridge. [The Porters station horse cars of the Charles river road, or the Xorth avenue or Arlington cars of the Cambridge road, pass Sacramento street.]
wAn7iual election of officers at the meeting of 11 Jan. 1884. GEORGE DIMMOCK, Secretmy.
Notice of the Club meeting for December 14, 1883, to be held at Dimmock's house on Sacramento St., with information about horse car transportation. 1909 seemed to focus almost totally upon its biggest project, the annual
exhibitions of insect collections held in the late fall at the Appalachian Mountain Club, 1050 Tremont Building, Boston, and open to the general public. Several times, the announced topics for regular meetings were totally ignored, the entire program being de- voted to the arrangements of exhibits and informal conversation. Often, nearly every other member had a box of specimens with him, mainly Lepidoptera, and during this period, members regularly ex- hibited entomological curiosities at the meetings as well:** THE BUSSEY INSTITUTION
In 1907 another event occurred which had great significance for the Cambridge Entomological Club.
As far back as 1871, a few
years before the Club was founded, Harvard College had established the Bussey Institution, located in Boston, as a place for courses in 'practical agriculture," and for some years after that time offered *Henshaw not only edited these volumes with great care but he personally covered all deficits resulting from their publication. At the meeting of March 8, 1901, the Club elected Henshaw a Life-Member, "as a token of the Club's appreciation of his generosity." **This is the origin of the tradition, still maintained, that notices of the meetings should include the statement: "Members are invited to bring speci- mens to the meeting for demonstration and discussion.''



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18 Psyche [March




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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 1 9 entomological instruction to undergraduates. The program was not very successful, however, and in 1907 the Bussey Institution was reorganized for graduate study and research in biology, including entomology. In 1908 William Morton Wheeler, a distinguished zoologist and entomologist, then curator of invertebrate zoology at the American Museum of Natural History, was appointed Professor of Economic Entomology at the Bussey Institution [21]. On his arrival he was elected to the Club and personally welcomed by President C. W. Johnson.*
In the following year Charles T. Brues was added to the Bussey Staff as Instructor in Entomology; and in November the Club gained by his election another member who would have an immediate and lasting influence on its future [23]. At the very next meeting, Presi- dent Bolster reported the resignation of Field as editor of Psyche. "Mr. Brues, being called upon by the chair, said he would try to arrange things so that he could take up the work," thus beginning his distinguished term as editor, which would span the next 37 years. The membership of Wheeler, Brues, and their graduate students served to draw the Cambridge Entomological Club closer to the Bussey Institution, not only intellectually but physically as well. Meetings during the post-Harris Club period had been held ,at various addresses around Boston: in the council room at the Boston Society of Natural History; at Emerton's room, Clarendon Street; at the Appalachian Mountain Club, Tremont Building; and at Newcomb's office, Court Street. At the February meeting, 1910, newly elected president Wheeler reported that certain rooms at the Bussey were being remodeled and he expressed his hope that future meetings of the Club might be held there. The suggestion was enthusiastically ac- cepted and the members voted to hold the next meeting at the Bussey Institution, in Boston. That was the place of meeting for the follow- ing 19 years.
At this time a task of primary importance facing the Club and especially the new editor, C. T. Brues, was that of putting Psyche on a satisfactory financial ba.sis; despite change in format, expenses continued to exceed subscription income and the contributions from *C. W. Johnson became a member of the Club in 1903, shortly after the election of the Harris Club members, when he arrived in Boston to be curator at the Boston Society o'f Natural History, as a specialist in Diptera. A genial personality, with youthful and vigorous enthusiasm, he was a true naturalist and helpful to all who consulted him. He was active in the Club until his death in 1932 [22].




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20 Psyche [March
members were never great enough to give the Club working capital to use. Early in 1916 Brues recommended that the length of the articles be normally limited to eight pages and that articles of greater length should be paid for by the authors, who would also be required to bear the cost of the engravings for their illustrations and to pay the cost price for their reprints. Although this was approved, for many years the financial status of Psyche continued to fluctuate, primarily because of the lamentable absence of any substantial en- dowment to fall back upon in critical periods. Deficits did occur, sometimes amounting to several hundreds of dollars, but various members, notably Wheeler, Brues, Johnson, and Thomas Barbour,* made sufficient personal contributions to balance the accounts. Never- theless, this was clearly the turning point in the history of Psyche; never again did the journal pass through such a protracted period of financial struggle as between 1895 and 1915. The Club members had every reason to be pleased at the Annual Meeting of 1919 as they heard the report of the acting treasurer, A. C. Kinsey: "At the close of a year of increased cost of everything it would not have been surprising if a financial report for the Club had presented a deficit . . . . Contrary to this, however, the cash balance to date is $I 18.35. This improvement in conditions should be credited in part to the increased efforts in collecting money due, but in a larger part to the efforts of the editor of Psyche.
An adoption of this report
should include an expression of thanks to the editor for his careful management of the cost of publishing the magazine." During the first decade ( 1908-1918) of meetings at the Bussey, the Club was very busy giving a cordial welcome to the many new members elected during the period - a total of 92. Many of these
were graduate students at Harvard and they enlivened the programs with accounts of their research and especially of their collecting trips. Among these, for example, was W. M. Mann, who, as one of
Wheeler's students, collected extensively during his graduate years, even in such remote regions as the East Indies and South America. He published occasionally on ants after leaving the Bussey but for *Dr. Barbour was elected a member of the Club in November, 1909, along with Brues, while he was a graduate student at Harvard. A verte- brate zoologist, he was soon appointed curator of reptiles and amphibians in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and later served as Director of the Museum (1927-1946). However, he continued his membership in the Club and was very generous in his contributions towards the cost of pub- lishing Psyche.




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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 21 most of his life he was Director of the National Zoological Park and had little time for entomological studies [24] . Another student, James W. Chapman, was also a myrmecologist ; in 1916, after grad- uating from the Bussey, he joined the staff of Silliman University, on the Island of Negros, Philippines, where he and Mrs. Chapman remained until the Japanese occupation in World War I1 [25]. A few of the Harvard faculty joined the Club and were active throughout this period, notably Nathan Banks, Curator of Insects at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and G. H. Parker, Pro- fessor of Zoology at Harvard and for many years chairman of that Department. During this time also the Club included among its members a substantial number of enthusiastic amateurs, who took an active and important part in the meetings. P. G. Bolster, a prac-
ticing attorney, was a very effective collector, mostly of Coleoptera; he was president of the Club twice during this period, in 1909 and 1913 [26] :* Another amateur active at this time was L. W. Swett, a proprietor of a store in Lexington; he built up a very large and useful collection of geometrid moths, now housed in the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and he was president of the Club in 191 I [27]. One of the most active of all Club members at this time was C. A. Frost, a civil engineer in Framingham. He was almost "the last of the old-time general students of Coleoptera and was most helpful to other coleopterists" [28] ; he published about eighty papers, many of them in Psyche, and at various times served the Club as secretary and treasurer, and twice as president. Among the newest elements in the Club membership in this decade were eight of the entomologists employed at the Gypsy Moth Parasite Laboratory of the Federal Bureau of Entomology, in Melrose High- lands. Included was the head of the control program for the Gipsy moth, A. F. Burgess, president of the Club in 1916. As might be expected, the meetings were well attended, with an average attendance of about twenty. The programs were varied but usually included a main speaker and two or three shorter presenta- tions. The meeting of June I 7, 1919, might well serve as an example of one of this period, as well as of the decade to follow. The main feature of the evening was an address by A. C. Kinsey, a graduate student, on the origin of some biological characteristics of gall wasps. *In 1909 Bolster prepared a manuscript on the history of the Club, the substance of which was read to the members on his retirement from the presidency in 1909. This was never published but is included in the ar- chives of the Club.




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Psyche
[March
LECTURES ON INSECTS
These lectures will treat in a popular way of the habits, growth and structure of Insects and their adaptation to their surroundings. They will be abundantly illustrated by the stereopticon and by motion pictures as far as they can be obtained.
Saturday afternoons at S:30, March 12
and 19, April 16 and 22.
The lectures will be by the following well- known members of the Club:
March 12. The Butterflies-by W; L. W.
Field, Headmaster of Milton Academy.
March 19. The Dragonflies-by R. Heber
Howe, Jr., Master of Natural Science at the Middlesex School.
April 16. Ants and the Social Life of Insects- by W. M. Wheeler, Professor of Entomology at Harvard University.
April 23.
Plant Galls and the Insects that Pro-
duce them-by A. C. Kinsey, of Indiana
University.
Tickets for the course, $2.00, for sale at the Bussey Institution, Forest Hills, Hoston, Mass. Sent by mail on receipt of price.
Make checks payable to Cambridge Kntoino- logical Club. Course and single tickets for sale at Ti*emont Temple on (lvs of lectures. Announcement of the public lectures given in Boston (1921) by members i)f the Cambridge Entomological Club.




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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 23 Mr. Emerton followed, speaking of his recent spider-collecting trip to Cape Cod; Dr. Wheeler exhibited specimens of the Japanese beetle, recently introduced into New Jersey, and a drawing of a "peculiar, elongate ant" from South America. Mr. Frost gave a number of collecting notes on beetles and spoke of his success in rearing sumac borers from dead twigs. The meeting concluded with a discussion of insects as food by a visiting entomologist from Bel- gium, Dr. J. C. Bequaert, his account being based on experiences in the Congo
region of Africa; and Dr. Wheeler remarked on his observations of similar foods used by the Australian natives. One of the important projects of the Cambridge Entomological Club in the early twenties was a series of lectures given in Boston for the public at large. The first formal note of this idea was in October, 1920, when a committee of four was appointed to propose plans. In the course which these affairs often follow, three of the four ended up as lecturers as well - W. L. W. Field, R. H. Howe, and W. M. Wheeler; the fourth member of the committee, J. H. Emerton, having reached 72 years, preferred not to undertake a lec- ture, and A. C. Kinsey, then at Indiana University, was selected to take his place. All were to speak on their "well known specialities" at Tremont Temple, on four successive afternoons during the spring of 1921. The printed announcement of the lectures stated : "These lectures will treat in a ~opular way of the habits, growth and struc- ture of Insects and their adaption to their surroundings. They will be abundantly illustrated by the stereopticon and by motion pictures as far as they can be obtained."
The lectures were quite a success, with an average attendance of about 150 persons, and income from ticket sales ($2 for the entire course, or fifty cents per lecture at the door) nearly equalled the expenses. Inspired by this, the Club voted the following year to expand the series to six lectures. Post card notices were sent to the Audubon Society's mailing list of 4,000 names, advertisements were placed in the Boston Transcript, and printed posters sent to libraries, schools and clubs. The lecturers included L. 0. Howard, W. T. M. Forbes, J. C. Bradley, C. T. Brues, Miss Edith M. Patch, and even J. H. Emerton. However, the series of six lectures appears to have been too long, for only 41 course tickets were sold, more than half of each audience paying at the door, and attendance varied greatly from lecture to lecture. The average attendance was smaller than in 1921 as well, only between 50 and 100 persons. Because of its enthusiastic advertising campaign, the club went $230 in debt,



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Psyche
[March
Seal of the Cambridge Entomological Club, designed by A. P. Morse and adopted by the Club in January, 1922. The White Mountain Butterfly (Oeneis mel'tssa semidea) is shown resting on rock-fragments, with Mt. Washington and the rest of the presidential range (New Hampshire) in the background.
and, having no funds set aside for this, had to solicit for the deficit from its members. For this reason, the lecture series was discontinued and never revived.
At the very same meeting at which the Club made the decision to hold their first public lecture series, they also (upon the motion of Dr. Wheeler) appointed a committee to look for a design for a Club seal. Emerton, Wheeler, and Morse were appointed, and for the next two years they examined and exhibited at meetings the numerous designs submitted by members. Finally, at the Annual Meeting, January, 1922, the committee recommended a design by A. P. Morse, showing the White Mountain Butterfly (then known as Oeneis semi- dea), "perched characteristically on the dark grey, deeply weather- bitten rock-fragments of its mountain home, whose tints and texture its own so closely resemble, that when lying on its side with wings closed to escape the wind it becomes almost invisible. Beyond it at the right is suggested the sedgy slope of 'Semidea plateau' (so chris- tened by Scudder) with its rock-rivulets in whose crannies the but-



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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 25 terfly often seeks shelter from the furious blasts which sweep over the summits even in midsummer.
Beyond, from the depths of the
Great Gulf, rise the slopes of the northern peaks, Mts. Jefferson, Adams, and Madison, with Mt. Washington suggested at the left. Over all float the summer clouds which often shroud the summit of Washington for days at a time even when the other peaks a,re free" [29]. The seal was used on the cover of Psyche for the next 37 years, until 1959, and is reproduced on page 24 of the present issue. During the second decade olf the Bussey meetings 62 members were elected - less than in the previous period but a clear indication of the continuing vitality of the Club. Some of these new members were to have an active part in the future of the Club. For example, George C. Wheeler, one of W. M. Wheeler's students, was elected in 1920; still an active member of the Club, he is a frequent con- tributor to Psyche. F. M. Carpenter, a high school senior who had been attending some of the meetings since 1920 as a guest of I?. W. Dodge, was elected in April, 1922; he became associate editor of Psyche eight years later and then editor after Brues' retirement in 1947. Dr. J. C. Bequaert, who had been a guest at several earlier meetings, was elected to membership in 1923, having been appointed in medical entomology in the Harvard Medical School; later, he succeeded Banks as Curator of Insects at the Museum of Compara- tive Zoology and participated in the Club meetings until his retire- ment in 1956. At the meeting of January 8, 1924, P. J. Darlington, Jr., an undergraduate in the college, was elected to membership; he also took an active part in the Club's affairs and followed Dr. Bequaert as Curator of Insects at the Museum. That particular meeting, incidentally, was the 50th anniversary of the founding of the Club, although the minutes refer to it only as the 50th annual meeting. J. H. Emerton, still regularly attending the meetings, gave a brief account of the history of the Club from 1874 to 1910 [30] a,nd W. L. W. Field spoke about the Harris Club and read letters from two of the original members of the Cambridge Club - B. Pickman Mann and E. A. Schwarz.
Towards the end of the twenties, plans were ma,de by the Harvard Administration to terminate the Bussey Institution as a graduate school and to centralize biological instruction and research in a corn- plex of buildings nea,r the Museum of Comparative Zoology. The



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26 Psyche [March
new building, first named the Biological Institute but later termed the Biological Laboratories, was to be ready for occupancy in 193 I. Impatient to become established in Cambridge, Professor Wheeler moved to temporary quarters in the Museum of Comparative Zoology in 1929, bringing with him the rest of the entomological staff and their graduate students. At the October meeting, 1929, the members of the Club voted to hold future meetings in Cambridge and left it to the executive commitee to find appropriate quarters for the gather- ing. Since the privilege of smoking was apparently a requirement, satisfactory housing was found in the basement of the Peabody Mu- seum, adjoining the Museum of Comparative Zoology. Accordingly, on November 12, 1929, with President Carpenter in the chair, the Club met again in Cambridge. As the secretary of the Club, R. P. Dow, recorded in the minutes: "This was the first meeting of the Club in Cambridge since March, 1903, when the entire Harris Club was elected to membership.'' For the next two years the Club met in the Peabody Museum, in an exotic-looking room, decorated with examples of ancient Indian cultures, until the Biological Institute was completed.
On October 13, 1931, the 498th meeting of the Club was held in room B-455 of the Biological Institute, with Presi- dent C. A. Frost in the chair. Since that time, except for a short interval during World War 11, the Club has met in that room, over a period of 43 years, and the formal address of the building, 16 Divinity Avenue, has been the official address of the Club. Two months later, December, 1931, a most unusual meeting was held - the 500th meeting, which apparently holds the record for Some members of the Cambridge Entomological Club in 1929. Front row (left to right), Charles W. Johnson, Curator at Boston Society of Natural History; Nathan Banks, Curator of Insects, Museum of Comparative Zool- ogy; Elizabeth Bryant, Assistant Curator of Insects, M.C.Z.; J. C. Bequaert, then Associate Curator, later Curator of Insects, M.C.Z. Back row (left to right) : Albert P. Morse, Curator of Natural History, at Peabody Museum, Salem; Arthur Loveridge, then Assistant Curator of Herpetology, M.C.Z., and collector of African insects; Charles T. Brues, Associate Curator of Insects, M.C.Z., and later Professor of Entomology at Harvard; E. T. Learned, Boston physician and lepidopterist; Samuel E. Cassino, Salem publisher (Naturalists' Directory), engraver, and lepidopterist; Frank M. Carpenter, then postdoctoral fellow at Harvard and president of the Cambridge Entomological Club. The photograph was taken in one of the entomological rooms in the M.C.Z. [Original in archives of Cambridge Entomological Club. J




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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 27



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28 Psyche [March
length and variety. In recognition of the occasion, a special program and dinner at the Faculty Club of Harvard University were held for the 29 members and one guest present. W. L. W. Field was toast- master of the evening; he read the minutes from the first Club meeting in 1874, and a letter from Henshaw expressing regret at being unable to attend. The first after-dinner speaker was Nathan Banks, who "emphasized the need for specialization and the further- ance of systematic entomology." Next, C. W. Collins, of the Parasite Laboratory in Melrose Highlands, brought the 'felicitations of the Bureau of Entomology and traced the development of economic entomology during the Club's existence. C. T. Brues gave a humor- ous account of "some of the peculiar and amusing incidents" con- nected with his editorship of Psyche. C. W. Johnson and A. P. Morse spoke on the history of the Club (with no extant record of their remarks). Following these speeches, a motion picture on the life history of the yellow fever mosquito was shown. And then the regular scientific program of the evening began, a talk by Dr. Joseph Bequaert on "Some Problems of Medical Entomology in Guatemala." When the 500th meeting finally adjourned, it was I I :oo p.m. Between 1920 and 1940, there occurred a striking transition in the composition of the Cambridge Entomological Club. Through the early twenties, the Club consisted of "not-all-terribly-old amateurs, more or less old professionals, and a few young people" [3 I]. But it was the custom in thos,e days to pass the presidency and vice-presi- dency of the club around among the senior people, and so rotated that every few years the same man would be president again. In 1929, however, the tradition was broken by thme election of Frank M. Carpenter, then a research fellow, to the presidency. His address as retiring president at the end of the year was published in the next issue of Psyche [32]. Dr. Carpenter was reelected as president for the following year, thus once again breaking tradition, for he was only the third person in the history of the Club to hold two successive terms of this office.* From this time the Club began to have an increasing number of younger members, including graduate students, as its officers.
*The others were Edward Burgess, 1879 and 1880; and J. H. Emerton, 1904 and 1905. In later years there were two other reelections: C. T. Brues, 1944 and 1945; and E. 0. Wilson, 1954 and 1955.



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19741
Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club
During the thirties, the 'Club meetings were enthusiastically at- tended, the average being about 22. But this situation was shortly to change with entrance of the country into World War 11. The December, I 941, meeting was held only two days after Pearl Harbor. No recorded mention of the war was made, however, until the fol- lowing February, when a symposium on Insects and the War was held at the regular meeting. Discussions were presented by Dr. Bequaert of the Medical School, Dr. J. E. Gordon of the Harvard Medical Unit in England, Dr. A. Getty of the Massachusetts Bureau of Public Health, and Dr. C. B. Philip of the U. S. Public Health Service. These speakers considered the expected increase in insect-borne diseases among the public in general, as a result of the rapid transfer and movements of armed forces. The Second World War had many more direct effects on the Club than the First did. By 1943, attendance at meetings was down to 7 or 8 members and it was apparent that the situation was going to become worse in the days immediately ahead, as one after another of the Club's members left to serve, directly or indirectly, in the war. In December, 1943, with only Carpenter, George Erickson (the Club's secretary), and one other member present, the meeting was held at the Harvard Faculty Club library, "where they discussed possible means whereby an active nucleus of the Club might be main- tained during the War." For all of 1944 this small group of three or four met at the library on the second Tuesday of each month to carry on the Club's tradition. Some type of program was always included. At the meeting of February 15, for example, Private Floyd Werner (elected a member in 1939), on leave 'from the army, pre- sented a paper on the "Distribution o'f Certain Species of the Beetle Genus Epicauta." In another year, the war was coming to a close and members began returning; and by the end of 1945 the meetings reverted to their pre-war time, place and vigor. The "active nucleus" had indeed been maintained, and the continuity of the Club insured. Since 1950 the Club has continued with notable consistency, though with some obvious and distinctive trends. The attendance at meet- ings, for example, has been on the increase. The average attendance for the meetings of the decade 1953-54 to 1962-63 was 29, with the election of 62 new members; the average for the period from 1963-64 to 1972-73 was 38, with election of 133 new members. Although



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30 Psyche [March
.many of the members elected were graduate students living in the vicinity of Cambridge, there' has been a noticeable increase in the number of amateurs that have joined the Club and that have regu- larly attended the meetings. From 1903, when the Harris Club members were elected, through the Bussey meetings in the twenties, non-professionals made up about half of the membership in attend- ance. This may have been due in part to W. M. Wheeler's en- couragement of amateur naturalists and his open expression of high regard for their contributions both to research and to the training of biologists.* However, during the thirties and forties, perhaps as a consequence of the depression and of World War 11, the number of non-professional members in the Club dropped significantly. In the course of the past two decades, this trend has been reversed. Other trends in the nature of the membership during the past two decades are apparent. For example, more women have joined the Club and taken part in the programs than previously. In the late fifties the Club experienced the greatest infusion of feminine talent in the entire history of its administration, with the election of Ruth Lippet Willey as secretary ( 1955) and Margaret C. Parson as secre- tary (rg57), vice-president (1958) and, in 1950, as the first lady president of the Entomological Club.
Another striking change has been thle increase in the number of arachnologists in the Club. The study of spiders was well repre- sented in the Club 'from the very beginning by J. H. Emerton, one of the founders; as shown by thle minutes of the meetings, he often spoke on habits of spiders - flying spiders were his favorite topic - and he published many papers in Psyche. After his death in 1932, spiders were almost never mentioned at the meetings until 1956, when Dr. Herbert Levi was appointed at the Museum of Comparative Zoology and became a member of the Club. He was promptly joined by a series of enthusiastic students of spiders (and even of milli- pedes). Such was their productivity that in 1964 Dr. Carpenter, while exhibiting the December issue olf Psyche, felt compelled to note "what he interpreted as a hopeful trend in the fact that the number *In his address, "The Dry-Rot of Our Academic Biology," at the Boston meeting of the American Society of Naturalists in 1922 Wheeler advocated the "utilization by the instructor of competent amateur naturalists as- oc- casional assistants" and he continued: "We have all known amateurs who could make an enthusiastic naturalist out of an indifferent lad in the course of an afternoon's ramble, and, alas, professors who could destroy a dozen budding naturalists in the course of an hour's lecture." [33].



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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 31 of pages devoted to insects was greater than the number devoted to spiders."
In March of 1965 the meeting commemorated the hundredth an- niversary of Professor W. M. Wheeler's birth. Miss Adeline Wheeler, his daughter, attended the meeting and made available an exhibit of some of his original drawings. A complete set of his publications was also shown and several members discussed his con- tributions to the study of social insects. Three of the members
present, Dr. F. M. Carpenter, Dr. E. 0. Wilson and Robert W. Taylor (president of the Club), represented three successive genera- tions of ant students that began with Professor Wheeler. The story of Psyche since 1950 has been one of slow but steady growth with respect to both its size and the number of subscribers. With the retirement of Professor Brues as editor in 1947, the Club elected as the new editor Frank M. Carpenter, who had been asso- ciate editor of Psyche since 1928. The journal now has the largest number of "subscribers in the Club's histoary; L I ~ of these are Club members, the rest being libraries or other institutions. The policy
approved by the Club in 1916, i.e., requiring payment by authors for at least partial cost of printing of their articles, has prevented the occurrence of the deficits that plagued the journal in its earlier years. The more general acceptance of this policy by educational and other institutions, including the federal government, has allowed the publi- cation in Psyche of more articles than would otherwise have been possible. In the past twenty years the average number of pages per volume has increased from 130 to 370.
The back issues of Psyche, now comprising 80 volumes, have created a storage problem. In 1930, when the editorial office moved to Cambridge, they were stored in the attic of the Museum of Com- parative Zoology. In 1964 space needs of the Museum staff neces- sitated the removal of the volumes and on April 14, 1964, the Club voted approval of a contract for the storage of the back issues with the Johnson Reprint Corporation in New York, which also was authorized to serve as the Club's agent in selling the back issues. In
1972, however, as a result of a generally depressed economic situa- tion, the Reprint Corporation asked that the contract be terminated and that the volumes be disposed of in some way. Fortunately, very satisfactory space for them was found in the basement of the Mu- seum, along with its own publications, and early in 1973 the back volumes, weighing some 6,000 pounds, were returned to Cambridge and deposited in the Museum.
2 ,




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32 Psyche [March
At the May meeting, 1973, the Club voted that the officers for 1973-74 (including the elected members of the Executive Committee and
the members of the Editorial Board of Psyche) constitute a Centennial Committee, with authority to make arrangements for appropriate recognition of the 100th anniversary of the Club. In October President Holldobler reported for the Committee' that the centennial celebration was planned for April 8 and 9, 1974. Pro-
fessor Thomas Eisner of Cornell University, a member of the Club since 1950, would present a public lecture on the first day, on a topic of general interest. The entomological and arachnological sec- tions of the Museum of Comparative Zoology and the Museum Laboratories would hold open-house on the afternoon of the second day, followed by a dinner and the Centennial Meeting at the Harvard Faculty Club. The March issue of Psyche was to be the Centennial Issue and would include an article on the history of the Club.
These plans were effectively carried out. Dr. Eisner's lecture,
entitled On Insects and How They Live as Chemists, was given to a capacity audience in the main lecture room of the Biological Laboratories. At the open-house on Tuesday, the new entomological facilities and equipment in the Museum Laboratories were demon- strated by Professors Holldobler, Wilson and Levi, and the insect collections at the Museum were shown by Dr. John Lawrence. Photographs and documents from the Club's archives were on display. The dinner at the Faculty Club was attended by fifty members and guests; among the guests were Dr. Miriam Rothschild of England and Dr. Clark A. Elliott of the Harvard University Archives. Following the dinner, Professor F. M. Carpenter spoke on the subject, Aspects of the History of the Cambridge Entomologi- cal Club - Somewhat Anecdotal. He discussed the general status of entomology and related fields of biology when the Club was begun, with examples from the Club's records, and reviewed the achieve- ments of the thirteen men who founded the Club. In the course of the past century about 800 individuals have been members of the society. With a current membership of slightly more than a hundred members, mostly local, the Club continues to be vigorous and active. Psyche, with an accumulated pagination of about 20,000 in its eighty volumes, now has some five hundred individuals and institutions on its subscription list. In his final remarks, Professor Carpenter em-



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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 33 phasized the close association that has existed between the Cambridge Entomological Club and the Museum of Comparative Zoology, beginning with the founding of the society by Professor Hagen and his associates at the Museum. He stressed the need for continuing this relationship.
With this Centennial Meeting, the Club began its second century. Henshaw, S. 1894. Hermann August Hagen. Proc. Amer. Arts Sci. 29: 419-423.
Mayor, A. G. 1924. Samuel Hubbard Scudder. Mem. Nat. Acad. Sci. 17: 81-103.
Wheeler, W. M. 1936. Entomology at Harvard University. [In] Notes Concerning the History and Contents of the Museum of Com- parative Zoology, pp. 22-32 [Tercentennial of the Founding of Harvard College].
Grote, A. R. 1889. The Rise of Practical Entomology in America. 20th Ann. Report Ent. Soc. Ontario, pp. 75-82. [Anon.] 1926. B. Pickman Mann. Psyche 3 3 : 172. Cockerell, T. D. A. 1920. Biographical Memoir of Alpheus Spring Packard, 1839-1905. Nat. Acad. Sci. Biog. Mem. 9: 181-236. Scudder, S. H. 1891. The Services of Edward Burgess to Natural Science. Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 25: 358-365; also: Anon., 1891. Edward Burgess. Psyche 6 : 131.
Banks, N. 1932. J. H. Emerton. Psyche 39: 1-8. Jackson, R. T. 1944. Samuel Henshaw. Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci. 75: 167-169.
Emerton, J. H. 1930. George Dimmock. Psyche 37: 299. Mann, B. P. 1885. Herbert Knowles Morrison. Psyche 4: 287. Howard, L. O., H. S. Barber, and A. Busck. 1928. Dr. E. A. Schwarz.
Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 30: 154-183.
Edwards, H.
1874. A Tribute to the Memory of George Robert Crotch. Proc. Calif. Acad. Sci. 5 : 332-334.
Aldrich, J. M. 1906. Baron Osten Sacken. Ent. News 17: 269-272. Also, C. W. Johnson. Ent. News 17: 273-275. Schwarz, E. A., L. 0. Howard and T. N. Gill. 1901. Henry Guernsey Hubbard. Proc. Ent. Soc. Wash. 4: 350-360. Cambridge Entomological Club, secretary's report for 1881. Dow, R.
1937. The Scientific Work of Albert Pitts Morse. Psyche 44: 1-11.
Banks, N. 1927. The Bowditch Collection of Coleoptera. Ent. News 38: 79.
Davis, J. J. 1936. Justus Watson Folsom. Journ. Econ. Ent. 29: 1178-1179.
Henshaw, S. 1906. Roland Hayward. Psyche 13: 101-103.



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[March
Brues, C. T. 1937. William Morton Wheeler. Psyche 44: 61-96. Also, M. A. and H. E. Evans, 1970. W. M. Wheeler, Biologist. Harvard Univ. Press. pp. 1-363.
Brues, C. T. 1933. Charles Willison Johnson, 1863-1932. Ent. News 44: 113-116.
Melander, A. L. 1955. Charles Thomas Brues. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 48: 422-423.
Wilson, E. 0. 1959. William M. Mann. Psyche 66: 55-59. Chapman, J. and E. Chapman. 1947. Escape to the Hills. Cattell Press, pp. 1-247.
Darlington, P. J., Jr. 1933. Percy Garldner Bolster. Psyche 40: 87-88. Johnson, C. W. 1930. Louis William Swett. Psyche 37: 300. Darlington, P. J., Jr. 1963. Charles Albert Frost. Psyche 70: 3-6. Morse, A. P.
1922. The Seal of the Cambridge Entomological Club. Psyche 29: 42.
Emerton, J. H. 1924. Early History of the Cambridge Entomological Club. Psyche 3 1 : 1-6.
From a transcription of an interview with Dr. P. J. Darlington, Jr., Dec. 13, 1968.
Carpenter, F. M. 1930,
A Review of our Present Knowledge of the Geological History of the Insects. Psyche 37: 15-34. Wheeler, W. M. 1922. The Dry-Rot of our Academic Biology. Ad- dress of the Retiring President of the American Society of Naturalists, December 29, 1922. Published in Science, 1923, 57: 61-71.



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19741 Matthews - Cambridge Entomological Club 3 5 OFFICERS OF THE CAMBRIDGE ENTOMOLOGICAL CLUB Date of
Election
Jan. 1874
Jan. 1875
Jan. 1876
Feb. 1877
Jan. 1878
Jan. 1879
Jan. 1880
Jan. 1881
Jan. 1882
Jan. 1883
Jan. 1884
Jan. 1885*
Jan. 1886
Jan. 1887
Jan. 1888
Jan. 1889
May 1890
Jan. 1891
Jan. 1892
Jan. 1893
Jan. 1894
Jan. 1895
Jan. 1896
Jan. 1897
Jan. 1898
Jan. 1899
Jan. 1900
Jan. 1901%
Jan. 1902*
Apr. 1903
Jan. 1904
Jan. 1905
Jan. 1906
Jan. 1907
Jan. 1908
Jan. 1909
Jan. 1910
Jan. 1911
Jan. 1912
Jan. 1913
Jan. 1914
Jan. 1915
Jan. 1916
Jan. 1917
President
S.H. Scudder
E.P. Austin
E. Burgess
E. Burgess
E.L. Mark
S.H. Scudder
B.P. Mann
S.H. Scudider
S.H. Scudider
S.A. Forbes
J.H. Emerton
W. Trelease
S.H. Scudder
C.W. Woodworth
G.H. Snow
W. J. Holland
W.H. Ashmead
T.E. Beau
C.M. Weed
H.S. Pratt
H.G. Dyar
T.E. Beau
A.G. Mayer
J.W. Folsom
J.W. Folsom
J.W. Folsom
A.P. Morse
J.H. Emerton
J.H. Emerton
W.L.W. Field
H.H. Newcomb
C.W. Johnson
P.G. Bolster
W.M. Wheeler
L.W. Swett
C.T. Brues
P.G. Bolster
A.P. Morse
C. W. Johnson
A.F. Burgess
F.G. Carnochan
Vice-president
W.M. Wheeler
W.L. Fiske
W. Reiff
C.A. Frost
J.W. Chapman
J.W. Chapman
T. Barbour
F.G. Carnochan
S.W. Denton
Secretary
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
W. Trelease
G. Dimmock
G. Dimmock
G. Dimmock
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
W.L.W. Field
W.L.W. Field
J.W. Dow
A.H. Clark
C.A. Frost
C.A. Frost
C.A. Frost
C.A. Frost
C.A. Frost
W.M. Mann
W.M. Mann
W.M. Mann
H.M. Parshley
H.M. Parshley
H.M. Parshley
Treasurer
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
W. Trelease
S. Henshaw
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
B.P. Mann
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
S. Henshaw
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
R. Hayward
F.C. Bowditch
F.A. Sherriff
F.A. Sherriff
F.A. Sherriff
F.A. Sherriff
F.A. Sherriff
F.W. Dodge
F.W. Dodge
F.W. Dodge
F.W. Dodge
C.A. Frost
*No elections at the annual meeting; officers held over.



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36
Date of
Election
Jan. 1918
Jan. 1919
Jan. 1920
Jan. 1921
Jan. 1922
Jan. 1923
Jan. 1924
Jan. 1925
Jan. 1926
Jan. 1927
Jan. 1928
Feb. 1929
Feb. 1930
Jan. 1931
May 1932
May 1933
May 1934
May 1935
May 1936
May 1937
Oct. 1938
May 1939
May 1940
May 1941
May 1942
May 1943
May 1944
May 1945
May 1946
May 1947
May 1948
May 1949
May 1950
May 1951
May 1952
May 1953
May 1954
May 1955
May 1956
May 1957
May 1958
May 1959
May 1960
President
W.M. Wheeler
S.W. Denton
C.A. Frost
N. Banks
W.M. Wheeler
A.P. Morse
C.T. Brues
J.H. Emerton
W.L.W. Field
O.E. Plath
J.C. Bequaert
P.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpenter
C.A. Frost
C.W. Collins
A.P. Morse
Psyche
Vice-president
S.W. Denton
C.A. Frost
W.L.W. Field
L.R. Reynolds
L.R. Reynolds
R.H. Howe
R.H. Howe
C.W. Johnson
O.E. Plath
S.M. Dohanian
F.M. Carpenter
C.W. Collins
C.W. Collins
C.W. Collins
C.W. Johnson
[March
Secretary Treasurer
A.C. Kinsey H.A. Preston
A.C. Kinsey L.R. Reynolds
J.H. Emerton F.H. Walker
J.H. Emerton F.H. Walker
J.H. Emerton F.H. Walker
J.H. Emerton . F.H. Walker
J.H. Emerton F.H. Walker
J.C. Bequaert F.H. Walker
J.C.Bequaert F.H.Walker
F.M. Carpenter F.H. Walker
J.W. Wilson F.H. Walker
J.W. Wilson F.H. Walker
R.P. Dow F.H. Walker
P.J. Darlington, Jr. F.H. Walker
J.W. Johnston
P. J. Darlington, Jr. M. Bates
P. J. Darlington, Jr. O.E. Plath R.P. Dow J.C. Bequaert O.E. Plath D. Davenport
O.E. Plath P.M. Carpenter D. Davenport
C.A. Frost J.C. Bequaert V.G. Dethier
W.S. Creighton C.H. Blake V.G. Dethier
C.H. Blake P.M. Carpenter C.T. Parsons
P.M. Carpenter P. J. Darlington, Jr. R.P. Holdsworth P.J. Darlington, Jr.
J.C. Bequaert C.M. Williams
J.C. Bequaert
L.G. Wesson G. Erikson
N. Banks C.T. Brues G. Erikson
C.T. Brues K. Arbuthnot G. Erikson
C.T. Brues K. Arbuthnot
G. Erikson
P.J. Darlington, Jr. J.C. Bequaert N. Bailey G.A. Edwards
C.L. Remington N. Bailey
N. Bailey
W.L. Brown, Jr. F.G. Werner
F.G. Werner
W.L. Nutting J. Woodland
K. Christensen
A.G. Humes R. J. Goss
A.G. Humes
F.Y. Cheng T. Eisner
T. Eisner
W.L. Brown, Jr. P.A. Adams
W.L. Brown, Jr.
S.K. Harris E.O. Wilson
E.O. Wilson
T. Eisner N.W. Gillham
E.O. Wilson
P.A. Adams R.H. Lippitt
P.A. Adams B.R. Headstrom R.B. Willey
R.B. Wil'ley S. Duncan M.C. Parsons
N. Gilham M.C. Parsons A.M. Stuart
M.C. Parsons A.L. Bull A.M. Stuart
H.W. Levi N. Bailey
G.L. Bush
~ a i 1961 J.J.T. Evans C. walckt A.R. Brady F.H. Walker
F.H. Walker
F.H. Walker
F.H. Walker
F.H. Walker
R.P. Dow
R.P. Dow
R.P. Dow
R.T. Holway
R.T. Holway
T. Rhyder
J.C. Bequaert
F.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpenter




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19741 Matt hews
Date of
Election
May 1962
May 1963
May 1964
May 1965
May 1966
May 1967
May 1968
May 1969
May 1970
May 1971
May 1972
May 1973
President
L.M. Roth
E.G. M,acLeod
R.W. Taylor
H. Reichardt
J. Reiskind
F.C. Coyle
W.G. Eberhard
S.B. Peck
R.E. Silberglied
C.S. Henry
F. Nijhout
B. Holldobler
Volume
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
^
5 3
5 4
^
8 1
Years
1874-76
1877-79
1880-82
1883-87
1888-90
1891-93
1894-96
1897-99
1900-02
1903
1904
1905
1906
1907
1908
1909
1910
^
1946
1947
^
Present
Cambridge EntonzoZogical Club
Vice-president
A.R. Brady
J. Beatty
J. Reiskind
S. Vogel
C.C. Porter
R.W. Matthews
C.F. Moxey
R.E. Silberglied
C.F. Moxey
T.P. Webster 111
T.H. Hlavac
W.D. Winter
Secretary
E.G. MacLeod
J. Reiskind
H. Reichardt
C.C. Porter
F.,C. Coyle
L. Pinter
S.B. Peck
W. Shear
C.S. Henry
H.F. Nijhout
R. Swain
H.E. Nipson
EDITORS OF PSYCHE
B. Pickman Mann
George Dimmock and B. P. Mann
George Dimmock and B. P. Mann
George Dimmock and B. P. Mann
George Dimmock and Samuel Henshaw
Samuel Henshaw
Samuel Henshaw
Samuel Henshaw
Samuel Henshaw
Samuel Henshaw
W. L. W. Field
W. L. W. Field
W. L. W. Field
W. L. W. Field
W. L. W. Field
W. L. W. Field
Charles T. Brues
^
Charles T. Brues
Frank M. Carpenter
4/
Frank M. Carpenter
Treasurer
F.M. Carpentel
F.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpentei
F.M. Carpente~
F.M. Carpentei
F.M. Carpentei
F.M. Carpente~
P.M. Carpenter
F.M. Carpenter
P.M. Carpentel
F.M. Carpente~
F.M. Carpentei




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Volume 81 table of contents