The Spider Genus Tinus (Pisauridae).
Psyche 83(1):63-78, 1976.
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THE SPIDER GENUS TINUS (PISAURIDAE)*
BY JAMES E. CARICO
Department of Biology, Lynchburg College Lynchburg, Virginia 2450 1
This paper is the third in a series of generic revisions of the pisau- rids of the western hemisphere. It represents the first attempt to bring together all published information with the results of an ex- tensive examination of all available collections of the genus. For those workers who are particularly interested in the fauna of the continental United States, Tinus is one of four pisaurid genera found in the area. Dolornedes and Pisaurina were revised earlier (1973 & 1972 resp.) and Trechalea is in progress. Unfortunately there are no published accounts of the natural history of any Tinus species. Based on a few labels with T. nigrinus specimens and the author's sketchy observations, it seems that the habitat is quite similar to Dolomedes, i.e. on the faces of rocks and tree trunks, and in trash or vegetation near the margins of bodies of fresh water. The female carries the spherical egg sac in a typical pisaurid manner by holding it with the chelicerae and a thread from the spinnerets. The egg sac is white, opaque or translucent when new, and usually darkens to a brownish color with age. Only nur- sery webs for T. nigrinus and T. ursus are known, and their descrip- tions are given in the Natural History sections of each species. The superficial body shape, eye patterns, and biology of Tinus suggest an affinity with Dolomedes. There is also a superficial re- semblence to Thaumasia; but whether Tinus might be a subgenus of the latter as Gertsch suggests (1940) is a matter that must await a revision of that genus. In any case, Tinus is clearly a group distinct from all other pisaurids studied and is strictly limited in its distribu- tion to southern North America, from the southwestern United States southward to Costa Rica in Central America. Too little is known about the genus to confidently trace its phylog- eny, but the apparently restricted distributions of four of the seven species suggests the kind of stream isolation situation described earlier for Dolomedes (Carico, 1973).
'Manuscript received by the editor April 15, 1976.
64 Psyche [March
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. I appreciate the cooperation of the fol- lowing people and institutions who made their collections at my disposal: H. W. Levi, Museum of Comparative Zoology; N. I. Plat- nick, American Museum of Natural History; F. R. Wanless, British Museum, Natural History; R. E. Leech, Alberta Environmental Research Inst.,; T. J. Zavortink, California Academy of Science Museum; C. E. Valerio, University of Costa Rica. I am also grateful to Herbert W. Levi for his review of the manu- script, and his help in obtaining type specimens. Lynchburg College provided publication expenses.
Tinus F. Pickard-Cambridge
Tinus Pickard-Cambridge, F., 1901, Biol. Centrali-America, 2:310. Type by mono- typy, Tinus nigrinus F. Pickard-Cambridge. Description. Carapace: moderately high, longer than wide. Eyes: posterior row moderately recurved, PE subequal and larger than AE, PME closer to each other than to PLE; anterior row slight- ly procurved, AME larger than ALE and closer to them than to each other, ocular quadrangle wider at top than at bottom and higher than height of clypeus. Sternum: lanceolate, about as long as wide. Chelicerae: moderately robust with three promarginal, three retro- marginal teeth on fang furrow. Legs: spinose, unmodified, 111 shortest, I, 11, IV subequal. Abdomen: longer than wide, greatest width at the middle, slightly overlaps posterior edge of carapace. MALE. Pedipalp: median apophysis spatulate, membranous, usually white, directed anteriorly; conductor conspicuous, spatu- late, directed anteriorly, located laterally; embolus long, slender, coiled 3-5 times; tegulum membranous, screw-shaped with 3-6 lamellae visible; tibia1 apophysis arises dorsally, bends retrolateral- ly, sometimes bifid with a dorsal spur. FEMALE. Epigynum: pair of lateral hemispherical elevations, median elevation present or ab- sent. Internal copulatory apparatus: variable. Note': Body conformations and eye characteristics among the various species are quite uniform and offer few useful diagnostic characters. The different relative overall sizes of some species, measured in carapace length, is an obvious exception. The dorsal color pattern of most species also offers little help be- cause of the variability within each species and the overlapping of the characteristic features of the pattern. A "typical" color pattern can be exemplified by that of Tinus peregrinus (Fig. 2). The cara-
19761 Carico- Spider Genus Tinus 65
pace has a median dark band with a submarginal, variably distinct, light band. The dorsum of the abdomen has a median dark band with a characteristic outline, notably a deep indentation on each side, bordered by a light band which is lightest in the indentations of the median band.
The following descriptions of each species, therefore, will not deal with the details of those features shared by most species. Char- acteristics of the genitalia are the most useful for identification. No attempt was made to distinguish juveniles because of the lack of adequate material.
Dolomedes minor Banks, 1898, Proc. California Acad. Sci., 3rd series, 1(7):277, pi. 17, fig. 6. Bonnet, 1959, Bibliographia Ara- neorum, 2: 1534. D. minoratus nomen novum, Roewer, 1954, Katalog der Araneae, 2(a):133. Type localities in Mexico are: San Jose del Cabo, Sierra San Lazaro (Baja California del Sur); Guay- mas (Sonora); Tepic (Nayarit). All of Banks' specimens were destroyed in the Great San Francisco Earthquake. From his de- scription of the abdomen and figures of the male and female geni- talia, it is clear that this is a Tinus. It is not certain whether it is T. peregrinus, as I stated earlier (1973), or T. nigrinus which also is probably found in the area. Only specimens from all his localities will help resolve the problem. If D. minor should prove to be synonymous with T. peregrinus, then the latter name will be in- validated.
KEY TO ADULTS OF SPECIES OF TZNUS
.............................................. 1. Males 2
.......................................... Females.. 6
Length of the carapace less than 4.0 mm; carina on the anterio- medial margin of the chelicerae .......... Tinus minutus Length of the carapace more than 4.0 mm; no carina on cheli- .......................................... cerae 3 3. Conspicuous, curved, dorsal spur arising from the bifid tibia1 .....................................
Tibia1 apophysis not bifid ............................. 5 4. Three lamellae on tegulum (Fig. 12) ........... Tinus tibialis ............
Six lamellae on tegulum (Fig. 16)
66 Psyche [March
5. Three lamellae on tegulum; median apophysis small, not ex- ..............
panded distally (Fig. 10) Tinusperegrinus Five lamellae on tegulum; median apophysis large, expanded .......................
distally (Fig. 8) Tinus nigrinus
6. Length of carapace less than 4.2 mm ..................... 7 Length of carapace more than 4.2 mm ................... 8 7.
Pair of conspicuous oval atria in epigynum (Fig. 30); carapace .................
length more than 3.3 mm
No conspicuous oval bursa1 openings present in epigynum (Fig. 24); carapace length less than 3.3 mm ..... Tinus minutus 8. Median elevation of epigynum absent (Fig. 20) ............. ................................... Tinus peregrinus Median elevation of epigynum present ................... 9 9.
Median elevation of epigynum about half width of epigynum; lateral elevations widely separated (Fig. 26) ............ ...................................... Tinusprusius Median elevation of epigynum distinctly less than half width of epigynum; lateral elevations not widely separated ..... ............................................. 10 10. Median elevation of epigynum widely separated from lateral elevations (Fig. 22) ..................... Tinus tibialis Median elevation of epigynum not widely separated from la- teral elevations ................................. 1 1 11. Bursa copulatrix extends from its anterior origin into area of epigynum (Fig. 29) ................... Tinuspalictlus Bursa copulatrix extends from its anterior origin to about mid- way in epigynum (Fig. 19) .............. Tinus nigrinus Tinus nigrinus F. Pickard-Cambridge
Figures 1, 8, 9, 18, 19: Map 1
Tinus nigrinus F. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901, Biol. Centrali-America, no. 2:304,310, 3 1 1, pi. 30, figs. 8,8a, 8b, 9. Male holotype and female paratype from Guatemala in British Museum (Natural History), examined. Simon, 1903, Hist. nat. Araig- nkes, 2: 1045.
1954, Katalog der Araneae, 2(a): 142. Bonnet, 1959, Bibliographia Araneorum 2(5):4622.
Diagnosis. The male palpus of this species shares only with T. peregrinus the narrowed tip of the conductor, but is distinguished from the latter by a distinctly larger median apophysis and a small, distinct tubercle on the prolateral medial margin of the cymbium.
19761 Carico--Spider Genus Tinus 67
The epigynum of both T. nigrinus and T. palictlus share the similar characteristic of a small, free, anterior median elevation. The length of the bursae copulatrix, as seen ventrally, provides the surest separa- tion of the females of these two species. Description. Carapace: average length of males 6.4 mm (6.0- 7.9, N=4), average length of females 5.73 mm (4.5-6.7, N= 18); broad, dark, median band; light submarginal bands. Legs: (1-2-4)-3. Ab- domen: median band with typical shape (Fig. 1). MALE. PedIpaIp: (Figs. 8, 9) tibia1 apophysis broad, arises apically on dorsal side, bends laterally, terminates in two tubercles; conductor narrowed apically; median apophysis rounded, conspicuous, semitransparent, widest apically; tegulum with 5 distinct lamellae; cymbium with distinct tubercle on polateral margin near base of conductor. FEMALE. Epigynum: (Fig. 18) lateral elevations hemispherical, broadly in contact; median elevation free, anterior to lateral eleva- tions. Internal copulatory apparatus: (Fig. 19) bursae copulatrix located in anterior half of epigynum; fertilization tubes series of con- joined, transparent, flexible lamellae, coiled around a central core. Natural History. Biological data are almost completely absent from labels with museum specimens. The only reference is to
68 Psyche [March
"sweeping stream vegetation" and the occasional mention of a stream name. I have collected this species in Nuevo Leon while searching for Dolomedes. Like Dolomedes it is found among rocks along the stream, perched head down but higher from the water. One female with an egg sac was taken from a sheet web under a boulder. Broken emboli in the female copulatory apparatus and the absence of emboli from some palpal organs indicate that the embous is often broken during copulation.
A gravid female and egg sacs are with two collections from north- ern Mexico, dated respectively late September and early August. An egg sac is in a Costa Rican collection dated February. Distribution. Eastern Mexico from Nuevo Leon and Nayarit southward to Costa Rica.
Material examined. Six males, 40 females, 20 immatures. Tinus peregrinus (Bishop)
Figures 2, 10, 1 1, 20, 2 1 ; Map 2
Thaumasia peregrinus Bishop, 1924, Bull. New York State Mus., 25262-63^ pis. 36, 37. Female holotype from Hot Springs, Arkansas in the New York State Mu- seum, examined. Bishop and Crosby, 1936, Ent. News, 47:243-244. Gertsch and Davis, 1940, American Mus. Novitates, 1059:14. Tinus peregrinus,-Gertsch, 1940, (rev. ed. Comstock, 1912, Spider Book), pp. 622, 631, 633, figs. 707, 708. Kaston, 1953, How to Know the Spiders, p. 137. Thaumasia peregina,-Roewer, 1954, Katalog der Araneae, 2(a) 141. Bonnet, 1959, Bibliographia Araneorum, 2:4416.
Diagnosis. For a comparison between the male palpus of this species and T. nigrinus, which it most closely resembles, see the diag- nosis of the latter species. The epigynum of the female lacks the median elevation, but may have a dark area between the lateral elevations which might represent the rtidiments of the median ele- vation.
Description. Carapace: average length of males 5.04 mm (4.3- 5.5, N=8), average length of females 6.49 mm (5.0-7.8, N=8); broad, dark, median band; light submarginal bands. Legs: (4-2-1)-3. Ab- domen: median band with typical shape (Fig. 2). MALE. Pedipalp: (Figs. 10, 11) tibia1 apophysis broad, arises apically on dorsal side, bends laterally and terminates in two tubercles; conductor narrowed apically; median apophysis rounded, inconspicuous, not distinctly widest apically, white; tegulum with 3 distinct lamellae; cymbium with elevation on prolateral margin near base of conductor. FE-
19761 Carico-Spider Genus Tinus 69
MALE. Epigynum: (Fig. 20) lateral elevations hemispherical, broad- ly in contact; no median elevation present, median concavity be- tween anterior areas of lateral elevations. Internal copulatory appa- ratus: (Fig. 21) bursae copulatrix small, located in central area of epigynum; fertilization tubes distinct, relatively short, composed of convolutions located in ventral area of epigynal cavity. Natural History. The labels with the museum specimens provided little information. An occasional reference to a stream and a single collection from the wall of a mine near water is all that is provided. The author has collected adults from southern Texas, where they were found near bodies of water, which is a similar habitat to that of Dolornedes.
Egg sacs are in collections from Arizona and Texas, dated late July and early August.
Distribution. Southwestern United States from southern Cali- fornia and Nevada through southern Texas to Missouri, and in northern Mexico from southern Sonora to Nuevo Leon. Material examined. Fifteen males, 52 females, and 34 immatures. Note: The state of the type locality, Hot Springs, Arkansas, may be in error. Arkansas seems to be outside the normal range for this species. There are other specimens from Hot Springs, Texas, which is within the range. It is suggested, then, that Texas may be the actual state of the type specimen.
Map 2. Distribution of Tinus peregrinus (Bishop).
Tinus tibialis F. Pickard-Cambridge
Figures 3, 12, 13, 22, 23
Tinus tibialis F. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901, Biol. Centrali-America, no. 2:3 10,3 1 1, pi. 30, figs. 10, 10a, lob, 11. Male holotype and female paratype from Cuernavaca, Mexico in British Museum (Natural History), examined. Roewer, 1954, Katalog der Araneae, 2:142. Bonnet, 1959, Bibliographia Araneorum, 2:4622. Diagnosis. Only T. tibialis and T. palictlus have a bifid tibial apophysis with a conspicuous, dorsal spur. The two are distin- guished by the number of lamellae on the tegulum; three for T. tibialis and six for T. palictlus. The epigynum alone has a small, hood-like median elevation that arises from a large atrium which widely separates the median from the lateral elevations. Description. Carapace: length of one male 5.5 mm, length of one female 6.0 mm; broad, dark, median band; light submarginal bands. Legs: (4-2-1)-3. Abdomen: median band with typical shape (Fig. 3). MALE. Pedipalp: (Figs. 12, 13) tibial apophysis arises dorsally and divided into two distinct parts, one part a dorsal curved spur, knobbed on tip, and a flattened part which bends la- terally; conductor broad apically; median apophysis rounded, con- spicuous, semitransparent, widest apically; tegulum with three dis- tinct lamellae; cymbium with no distinct elevations on prolateral margin. FEMALE. Epigynum: (Fig. 22) lateral elevation hemi- spherical, not in contact with each other; small hood-like medianele- vation arises from large median cavity located anterior to lateral elevation. Internal copulatory apparatus: (Fig. 23) bursae copu- latrix large, occupying space in posterior and anterior part of epi- gynal area; fertilization tubes looped, relatively short, located in posterior region of epigynal area.
Natural History. No data available.
Distribution. Known only from type locality. Material examined. One male, two females. Tinus minutus F. Pickard-Cambridge
Figures 4, 14, 15, 24, 25; Map 3
Tinus minutus F. Pickard-Cambridge, 1901, Biol. Centrali-America, no. 2:3 1, 31 1, pi. 30, fig. 12. Female holotype from Teapa, Tabasco, Mexico in the British Mu- seum (Natural History), examined. Roewer, 1954, Katalog der Araneae, 2(a): 142. Bonnet, 1959, Bibliographia Araneorum, 2(5):4622. Diagnosis. This is the smallest species in the genus with the male carapace length less than 3.5 mm and the female carapace length less
19761 Carico-Spider Genus Tinus 71
Figures 1-7, Dorsal color patterns of females of species of Tinus, Pig. 1, T. nigrinus F. Pickard-Cambridge. Fig. 1, T, percgriww (Bishop). Fig. 3, T. tibialis F. Pickard- Cambridge. Fig. 4, T. minutus I?. Pickard-Cambridge. Rg. 5, T. prusitis n. up. f g. 6, T. palicifus n. sp. Fig. 7. 7'. urmx n. sp.
72 Psyche [March
than 3.2 mm. The male palpal tibia has two small tubercles laterally near the margin. The internal copulatory apparatus of the female is relatively large, especially the bursae. Both sexes have a distinct carina on the anterior face of each chelicera. Description. Carapace: average length of males 2.99 mm (2.7- 3.4, N=8), average length of females 2.89 mm (2.6-3.1, N=8); broad dark median band; narrow light submarginal bands. Legs: (1-2- 4)-3. Abdomen: median band with typical shape, paler anteriorly; pair of converging longitudinal light stripes (Fig. 4). MALE. Pedi- palp: (Figs. 14, 15) tibial apophysis broad, arises apically on dorsal side, bends laterally, terminates in a single acute apex; small, acute tubercle near apical tibial margin, prolaterally and retrolaterally; conductor broad; median apophysis broad, white, mostly hidden behind conductor; tegulum with 2 distinct lamellae; cymbium with obscure elevation on prolateral margin. FEMALE. Epigynum: (Fig. 24) lateral elevations hemispherical, broadly in contact or op- posed; median elevation hood-like, indented or rounded poste- riorly, in contact with lateral elevations. Internal copulatory ap- paratus: (Fig. 25) bursae copulatrix very large, occupying most of epigynal area; fertilization tubes flattened, large, closely appressed against bursae.
Natural History. No data available.
Distribution. From the Mexican states of Nayarit and San Luis Postosi southward to Guatemala and El Salvador. Material Examined. Thirty-four males, 41 females, 15 immatures. Map 3. Distribution of Tinus minutus F. Pickard-Cambridge.
Carico-Spider Genus Tinus
Tinus prusius new species
Figures 5, 26, 27
Types. A female holotype, a female paratype, and seven juve- niles from Prusia, Chiapas, Mexico, April-May 1942, collected by H. Wagner, in the American Museum of Natural History. Etymology. The name is derived from the name of the type lo- cality,
Diagnosis. Both female types have a distinctly dark dorsum with an obscure median dark band and white spots (Fig. 5). The epi- gynum has a large median hood-like elevation which separates the lateral elevations.
Description. Carapace: length of holotype 7.6 mm (paratype damaged); broad dark median band; broad light submarginal bands extend laterally almost to margin; clypeus dark except for median white spot. Legs: paratype 4-2-1-3 (holotype has first pair mis- sing); color generally dark with light areas on dorsal surfaces of femora, light annuli on segments distal to patella. Abdomen: quite dark dorsally and laterally; median band obscure; pair of large white spots anteriorly, and posteriorly (approximately at indentations of median band); two pairs of small white spots posteriorly; median serrated light area posteriorly. Epigynum: (Fig. 26) lateral eleva- tions widely separated, median elevation elevated, broad, emargi- nated posteriorly, hood-li ke. Internal copulatory apparatus: (Fig. 27) bursae copulatrix small, arising from posterior part of median elevation; fertilization tubes small, looped tightly against sperma- theca.
Natural History. No dat? available.
Distribution. Known only from the type locality. Material Examined. Two females, seven juveniles (type collec- tion). Males unknown.
Tinus palictlus new species
Figures 6, 16, 17, 28, 29
Types. A male holotype and a female paratype from Palictla, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, 1-5 Sept. 1946, collected by C. M. Bogert, in the American Museum of Natural History. Etymology. The name is dervied from the name of the type lo- cality.
19761 Carico- Spider Genus Tinus 75
Diagnosis. See the diagnosis of T. tibialis for a comparison with the similar male palpus.
The epigynum and internal copulatory
apparatus resembles most that of T. peregrinus, and one should consult the diagnosis of the latter species for a comparison. Description: Carapace: length of male 7.1 mm, length of fe- male 7.3 mm; broad, dark, median band; wide, submarginal light bands. Legs: (2-1)-4-3. Abdomen: median band with typical shape (Fig. 6). MALE. Pedipalp: (Figs. 16, 17) tibia1 apophysis arises dorsally, divides into two distinct parts, one part a dorsal curved spur, other flattened part bends laterally; conductor broad, curved apically; median apophysis rounded, conspicuous, semi- transparent, widest apically; tegulum with 6 distinct lamellae; cym- bium with no distinct elevations on prolateral margin. FEMALE. Epigynum: (Fig. 28) lateral elevations large, elongated, in contact with each other; median elevation small, elongated, free, located anteriorly between lateral elevations. Internal copulatory appa- ratus; (Fig. 29) bursae copulatrix narrow, nearly parallel, arises anteriorly; fertilization tubes a series of conjoined transparent, flexible lamellae coiled against a central core. Natural History. No data available.
Distribution. Known only from the type locality. Material examined. One male, one female, one juvenile (type collection).
Tinus ursus new species
Figures 7, 30, 3 1
Types. A female holotype, five female paratypes, and four juve- niles from Rincdn de Osa, Costa Rica, 27 February 1967, collected by Carlos E. Valerio. Holotype deposited in the Museum of Com- parative Zoology, and paratypes deposited in the Museo de Zoologi- ca, University of Costa Rica.
- - -
Figures 8-17, Male palpi of species of Tinus. Figs. 8-9, T. nigrinus F. Pickard- Cambridge, right palpus. 8, Ventral view. 9, Prolateral view. Figs. 10-1 1, were- grinus (Bishop), right palpus. 10, Ventral view. 11, Prolateral view. Figs. 12-13, T. tibialis F. Pickard-Cambridge, left palpus. 12, Ventral view. 13, Prolateral view.
Figs. 14-15, T. minutus F. Pickard-Cambridge, right palpus. 14, Ventral view. 15, Prolateral view. Figs. 16-17, T. palictlus n. sp., right palpus. 16, Ventral view. 17, Prolateral view.
Note the exposed embolus tip in Figs. 12 & 13. Normally it is contained in a con- cavity behind the conductor.
19761 Carico-Spider Genus Tinus
Etymology. The name is from the latin noun for bear. Diagnosis. The length of the carapace, ranging between 3.5 mm and 3.9 mm, places its size, without overlap, between the smaller T. minutus and the remainder of the species which are larger. The epigynum is distinctive with a pair of oval atria. Description. Carapace: average length of females 3.63 mm (3.5- 3.9 N=6); broad dark median band, narrow light submarginal bands; dusky marginal band. Legs: (1 -2)-4-3. Abdomen: median dark band without typical lateral, large indentations; narrow light bands within median dark bands converge posteriorly (Fig. 7). Epigynum: (Fig. 30) lateral elevations in contact; median elevation widest posterior- ly, joined to lateral elevations, narrowed into an isthmus anteriorly which separates two large oval atria. Internal copulatory appara- tus: (Fig. 31) bursae copulatrix moderately broad, arises anterior- ly; fertilization tubes curved, relatively short. Natural History. According to Carlos E. Valerio, his field notes for collection number CEV-366 contain the following information: . . . adult females rolled green leaves to use as retreats. These re- treats were found near the water (5-1 5 cm above water level). Many females had egg sacs at time of collection, holding them with the chelicerae against the sternum. Males were not found. Immatures (if the same species) had small webs located mainly in the holes of chewed up leaves . . ." (1976). A simple ovate-lanceolate leaf with serrate margins from an unidentified plant is in the collection jar. The leaf measures 4 cm X 10.5 cm and has the margins tied together to form a tube of 1.25 cm in diameter. Debris in the retreat includes spiderlings and the appendages of a single damselfly (Caloptery- gidae).
Distribution. Known only from the type locality. Material examined. Six females, seven juveniles. Males un- known.
Figures 18-31, Epigyna of species of Tinus. Figs. 18-19, T. nigrinus F. Pickard- Cambridge. 18, Ventral view. 19, Dorsal view. Figs. 20-21, T. peregrinus (Bishop). 20, Ventral view (note base of embolus protruding from atrium). 21, Dorsal view. Figs. 22-23, T. tibialis F. Pickard-Cambridge. 22, Ventral view. 23, Dorsal view. Figs. 24-25, T. minutus F. Pickard-Cambridge. 24, Ventral view. 25, Dorsal view. Figs. 26-27, T. prusius n. sp. 26, Ventral view. 27. Dorsal view. Figs. 28-28, T.palict- lus n. sp. 28, Ventral view. 29, Dorsal view. Figs. 30-31, T. ursus n. sp. 30, Ventral view. 3 1, Dorsal view.
CARICO, J. E.
1972. The nearctic spider genus Pisaurina (Pisauridae). Psyche. 79(4):295-310. 1973. The nearctic species of the genus Dolomedes (Araneae: Pisauridae). Bull. Comp. Zool. 144(7):435488.
GERTSCH, W. J., REVISOR.
1940. J. H. Comstock's: The spider book. Comstock Publ. Co. p. 631. VALERIO, C. E.
1976. (Personal communication)
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